Background: Anemia is a common complication in CKD patients. Despite the use of iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agents, the control rate of anemia in CKD is not satisfying. Novel drugs are needed for anemia correction. Summary: HIF-PHI, hypoxia-inducible factor-proline hydroxylase inhibitor, a novel class of therapeutic agents, has been developed to treat anemia in CKD patients. Its main effects comprised boosting EPO production, enhancing iron utilization, and suppressing hepcidin production. Several stage 2 and stage 3 clinical trials have been run to test its efficacy and safety in both nondialysis and dialysis patients, of which the results are very encouraging. Here, we summarize the mechanism, clinical applications, and clinical trials of HIF-PHI in treating renal anemia in order to give an overview of the new drug in clinical practices. Key Messages: HIF-PHI is a novel therapeutic agent of treating renal anemia in CKD patients. It is quite effective in improving anemia, which is unaffected by inflammation. Besides, it may ameliorate lipid metabolism as well. Furthermore, the oral form may improve patients’ compliances with treatment. Thus, it may be a good alternative of anemia correction in CKD patients.