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      Expression of key genes affecting artemisinin content in five Artemisia species

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          Abstract

          Artemisinin, an effective anti-malarial drug is synthesized in the specialized 10-celled biseriate glandular trichomes of some Artemisia species. In order to have an insight into artemisinin biosynthesis in species other than A. annua, five species with different artemisinin contents were investigated for the expression of key genes that influence artemisinin content. The least relative expression of the examined terpene synthase genes accompanied with very low glandular trichome density (4 No. mm −2) and absence of artemisinin content in A. khorassanica (S2) underscored the vast metabolic capacity of glandular trichomes. A. deserti (S4) with artemisinin content of 5.13 mg g −1 DW had a very high expression of Aa- ALDH1 and Aa- CYP71AV1 and low expression of Aa- DBR2. It is possible to develop plants with high artemisinin synthesis ability by downregulating Aa- ORA in S4, which may result in the reduction of Aa- ALDH1 and Aa- CYP71AV1 genes expression and effectively change the metabolic flux to favor more of artemisinin production than artemisinic acid. Based on the results, the Aa- ABCG6 transporter may be involved in trichome development. S4 had high transcript levels and larger glandular trichomes (3.46 fold) than A. annua found in Iran (S1), which may be due to the presence of more 2C-DNA (3.48 fold) in S4 than S1.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Network analysis of the MVA and MEP pathways for isoprenoid synthesis.

          Isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for all living organisms, and isoprenoids are also of industrial and agricultural interest. All isoprenoids are derived from prenyl diphosphate (prenyl-PP) precursors. Unlike isoprenoid biosynthesis in other living organisms, prenyl-PP, as the precursor of all isoprenoids in plants, is synthesized by two independent pathways: the mevalonate (MVA) pathway in the cytoplasm and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway in plastids. This review focuses on progress in our understanding of how the precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis are synthesized in the two subcellular compartments, how the underlying pathway gene networks are organized and regulated, and how network perturbations impact each pathway and plant development. Because of the wealth of data on isoprenoid biosynthesis, we emphasize research in Arabidopsis thaliana and compare the synthesis of isoprenoid precursor molecules in this model plant with their synthesis in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
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            The origin, evolution and proposed stabilization of the terms 'genome size' and 'C-value' to describe nuclear DNA contents.

            Perusing the literature on nuclear 'genome size' shows that the term is not stabilized, but applied with different meanings. It is used for the DNA content of the complete chromosome complement (with chromosome number n), for which others use 'C-value', but also for the DNA content of the monoploid chromosome set only (with chromosome number x). Reconsideration of the terminology is required. Our purpose is to discuss the currently unstable usage of the terms 'genome size' and 'C-value', and to propose a new unified terminology which can describe nuclear DNA contents with ease and without ambiguity. We argue that there is a need to maintain the term genome size in a broad sense as a covering term, because it is widely understood, short and phonetically pleasing. Proposals are made for a unified and consensual terminology. In this, 'genome size' should mean the DNA content based on chromosome number x and n, and should be used mainly in a general sense. The necessary distinction of the kinds of genome sizes is made by the adjectives 'monoploid' and the neology 'holoploid'. 'Holoploid genome size' is a shortcut for the DNA content of the whole chromosome complement characteristic for the individual (and by generalization for the population, species, etc.) irrespective of the degree of generative polyploidy, aneuploidies, etc. This term was lacking in the terminology and is for reasons of linguistic consistency indispensable. The abbreviated terms for monoploid and holoploid genome size are, respectively, Cx-value and C-value. Quantitative data on genome size should always indicate the C-level by a numerical prefix, such as 1C, 1Cx, 2C, etc. The proposed conventions cover general fundamental aspects relating to genome size in plants and animals, but do not treat in detail cytogenetic particularities (e.g. haploids, hybrids, etc.) which will need minor extensions of the present scheme in a future paper.
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              A maize (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase implicated in indirect defense responses against herbivores is not expressed in most American maize varieties.

              The sesquiterpene (E)-beta-caryophyllene is emitted by maize (Zea mays) leaves in response to attack by lepidopteran larvae like Spodoptera littoralis and released from roots after damage by larvae of the coleopteran Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. We identified a maize terpene synthase, Terpene Synthase 23 (TPS23), that produces (E)-beta-caryophyllene from farnesyl diphosphate. The expression of TPS23 is controlled at the transcript level and induced independently by D. v. virgifera damage in roots and S. littoralis damage in leaves. We demonstrate that (E)-beta-caryophyllene can attract natural enemies of both herbivores: entomopathogenic nematodes below ground and parasitic wasps, after an initial learning experience, above ground. The biochemical properties of TPS23 are similar to those of (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthases from dicotyledons but are the result of repeated evolution. The sequence of TPS23 is maintained by positive selection in maize and its closest wild relatives, teosinte (Zea sp) species. The gene encoding TPS23 is active in teosinte species and European maize lines, but decreased transcription in most North American lines resulted in the loss of (E)-beta-caryophyllene production. We argue that the (E)-beta-caryophyllene defense signal was lost during breeding of the North American lines and that its restoration might help to increase the resistance of these lines against agronomically important pests.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karimzadeh_g@modares.ac.ir
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 August 2018
                23 August 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1781 3962, GRID grid.412266.5, Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, , Tarbiat Modares University, ; Tehran, P. O. Box 14115-336, Iran
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0612 7950, GRID grid.46072.37, Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Agricultural College, , University of Tehran, ; Karaj, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.417689.5, Cultivation and Development Department of Medicinal Plants Research Center, , Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, ; Karaj, Iran
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1781 3962, GRID grid.412266.5, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, , Tarbiat Modares University, ; Tehran, Iran
                Article
                31079
                10.1038/s41598-018-31079-0
                6107673
                30139985
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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