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      Effects of different habitual foot strike patterns on in vivo kinematics of the first metatarsophalangeal joint during shod running—a statistical parametric mapping study

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          Abstract

          Existing studies on the biomechanical characteristics of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ) during shod running are limited to sagittal plane assessment and rely on skin marker motion capture, which can be affected by shoes wrapping around the 1st MTPJ and may lead to inaccurate results. This study aims to investigate the in vivo effects of different habitual foot strike patterns (FSP) on the six degrees of freedom (6DOF) values of the 1st MTPJ under shod condition by utilizing a dual-fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS). Long-distance male runners with habitual forefoot strike (FFS group, n = 15) and rearfoot strike (RFS group, n = 15) patterns were recruited. All participants underwent foot computed tomography (CT) scan to generate 3D models of their foot. The 6DOF kinematics of the 1st MTPJ were collected using a DFIS at 100 Hz when participants performed their habitual FSP under shod conditions. Independent t-tests and one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (1-d SPM) were employed to analyze the differences between the FFS and RFS groups’ 1st MTPJ 6DOF kinematic values during the stance phase. FFS exhibited greater superior translation (3.5–4.9 mm, p = 0.07) during 51%–82% of the stance and higher extension angle (8.4°–10.1°, p = 0.031) during 65%–75% of the stance in the 1st MTPJ than RFS. Meanwhile, FFS exhibited greater maximum superior translation (+3.2 mm, p = 0.022), maximum valgus angle (+6.1°, p = 0.048) and varus–valgus range of motion (ROM) (+6.5°, p = 0.005) in the 1st MTPJ during stance. The greater extension angle of the 1st MTPJ in the late stance suggested that running with FFS may enhance the propulsive effect. However, the higher maximum valgus angle and the ROM of varus–valgus in FFS may potentially lead to the development of hallux valgus.

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          Most cited references37

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          Zero- vs. one-dimensional, parametric vs. non-parametric, and confidence interval vs. hypothesis testing procedures in one-dimensional biomechanical trajectory analysis

          Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories.
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            Radiographic validation of the Manchester scale for the classification of hallux valgus deformity.

            Hallux valgus is a common orthopaedic condition affecting elderly people. Grading the severity of the condition commonly involves obtaining measurements from radiographs, which may not be feasible or necessary in some clinical or research settings. Recently, a non-invasive clinical assessment tool (the Manchester scale), consisting of four standardized photographs, has been developed; however, its validity has not yet been determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the validity of this tool by correlating Manchester scale scores with hallux valgus measurements obtained from radiographs. Weight-bearing dorsoplantar foot radiographs were obtained from 95 subjects (31 men and 64 women) aged 62-94 yr (mean 78.6, s.d. 6.5), and measurements of the hallux abductus angle, intermetatarsal angle and hallux interphalangeal adbuctus angle were performed. These measurements were then correlated with the Manchester scale scores (none, mild, moderate or severe). The Manchester scale score was highly correlated with hallux abductus angle (Spearman's rho = 0.73, P<0.01) and moderately associated with intermetatarsal angle (rho = 0.49, P<0.01) measurements obtained from radiographs. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in mean hallux abductus angles [F3 = 119.99, P<0.001] and intermetatarsal angles [F3 =29.56, P<0.001] between the four Manchester scale categories. These findings indicate that the Manchester scale provides a valid representation of the degree of hallux valgus deformity determined from radiographic measurement of hallux abductus angle and intermetatarsal angle. We therefore recommend the use of this instrument as a simple, non-invasive screening tool for clinical and research purposes.
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              Gait instability in older people with hallux valgus.

              Hallux valgus is a common condition that may lead to considerable pain and disability. There is also evidence that hallux valgus may impair balance and increase the risk of falling in older people. Although a number of plantar pressure studies have been undertaken in people with and without hallux valgus, little is known about how hallux valgus affects basic gait patterns or the movement of the upper body when walking. Measurements of temporospatial parameters of gait and acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis were obtained in 71 people (24 men, 47 women) between 75 and 93 (mean 80 +/- 4) years of age when walking on both a level surface and a specially designed irregular walkway. Foot problems, vision, peripheral sensation, strength, and reaction time also were evaluated. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with moderate to severe hallux valgus were found to exhibit significantly reduced velocity and step length on both walking surfaces and less rhythmic acceleration patterns in the vertical plane when walking on the irregular surface compared to subjects with no or mild hallux valgus. These findings indicate that hallux valgus has a significant detrimental impact on gait patterns that may contribute to instability and risk of falling in older people, particularly when walking on irregular terrain.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
                Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-4185
                06 September 2023
                2023
                : 11
                : 1251324
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 School of Exercise and Health , Shanghai University of Sport , Shanghai, China
                [2] 2 School of Sports and Health , Nanjing Sport Institute , Nanjing, China
                [3] 3 Shanghai Warrior Shoes Co., Ltd. , Shanghai, China
                [4] 4 School of Athletic Performance , Shanghai University of Sport , Shanghai, China
                [5] 5 Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education , Shanghai University of Sport , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Qichang Mei, Ningbo University, China

                Reviewed by: Wenxin Niu, Tongji University, China

                Scott Telfer, University of Washington, United States

                *Correspondence: Shen Zhang, zhangshen0708@ 123456163.com ; Weijie Fu, fuweijie@ 123456sus.edu.cn
                Article
                1251324
                10.3389/fbioe.2023.1251324
                10511762
                37744258
                21ccd636-b385-4d43-bd36-30225b545c16
                Copyright © 2023 Wu, Sun, Ye, Zhang, Zhang and Fu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 01 July 2023
                : 25 August 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China , doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China , doi 10.13039/501100002855;
                The research was supported by the following funding sources: the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2019YFF0302100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (12272238), and the “Outstanding Young Scholar” Program of Shanghai Municipal.
                Categories
                Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                Biomechanics

                rearfoot strike,forefoot strike,shod running,1st metatarsophalangeal joint, in vivo kinematics

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