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      European Stroke Organization Guidelines for the Management of Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

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          Abstract

          Background: Intracranial aneurysm with and without subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a relevant health problem: The overall incidence is about 9 per 100,000 with a wide range, in some countries up to 20 per 100,000. Mortality rate with conservative treatment within the first months is 50–60%. About one third of patients left with an untreated aneurysm will die from recurrent bleeding within 6 months after recovering from the first bleeding. The prognosis is further influenced by vasospasm, hydrocephalus, delayed ischaemic deficit and other complications. The aim of these guidelines is to provide comprehensive recommendations on the management of SAH with and without aneurysm as well as on unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods: We performed an extensive literature search from 1960 to 2011 using Medline and Embase. Members of the writing group met in person and by teleconferences to discuss recommendations. Search results were graded according to the criteria of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Members of the Guidelines Committee of the European Stroke Organization reviewed the guidelines. Results: These guidelines provide evidence-based information on epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of SAH and recommendations on diagnostic and therapeutic methods of both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Several risk factors of aneurysm growth and rupture have been identified. We provide recommendations on diagnostic work up, monitoring and general management (blood pressure, blood glucose, temperature, thromboprophylaxis, antiepileptic treatment, use of steroids). Specific therapeutic interventions consider timing of procedures, clipping and coiling. Complications such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm and delayed ischaemic deficit were covered. We also thought to add recommendations on SAH without aneurysm and on unruptured aneurysms. Conclusion: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm with a high rate of subsequent complications is a serious disease needing prompt treatment in centres having high quality of experience of treatment for these patients. These guidelines provide practical, evidence-based advice for the management of patients with intracranial aneurysm with or without rupture. Applying these measures can improve the prognosis of SAH.

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          Most cited references115

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          International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.

          Two types of treatment are being used for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: endovascular detachable-coil treatment or craniotomy and clipping. We undertook a randomised, multicentre trial to compare these treatments in patients who were suitable for either treatment because the relative safety and efficacy of these approaches had not been established. Here we present clinical outcomes 1 year after treatment. 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms, who were admitted to 42 neurosurgical centres, mainly in the UK and Europe, took part in the trial. They were randomly assigned to neurosurgical clipping (n=1070) or endovascular coiling (n=1073). The primary outcome was death or dependence at 1 year (defined by a modified Rankin scale of 3-6). Secondary outcomes included rebleeding from the treated aneurysm and risk of seizures. Long-term follow up continues. Analysis was in accordance with the randomised treatment. We report the 1-year outcomes for 1063 of 1073 patients allocated to endovascular treatment, and 1055 of 1070 patients allocated to neurosurgical treatment. 250 (23.5%) of 1063 patients allocated to endovascular treatment were dead or dependent at 1 year, compared with 326 (30.9%) of 1055 patients allocated to neurosurgery, an absolute risk reduction of 7.4% (95% CI 3.6-11.2, p=0.0001). The early survival advantage was maintained for up to 7 years and was significant (log rank p=0.03). The risk of epilepsy was substantially lower in patients allocated to endovascular treatment, but the risk of late rebleeding was higher. In patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms suitable for both treatments, endovascular coiling is more likely to result in independent survival at 1 year than neurosurgical clipping; the survival benefit continues for at least 7 years. The risk of late rebleeding is low, but is more common after endovascular coiling than after neurosurgical clipping.
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            Changes in case fatality of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and region: a meta-analysis.

            In a systematic review, published in 1997, we found that the case fatality of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) decreased during the period 1960-95. Because diagnostic and treatment strategies have improved and new studies from previously non-studied regions have been published since 1995, we did an updated meta-analysis to assess changes in case fatality and morbidity and differences according to age, sex, and region. A new search of PubMed with predefined inclusion criteria for case finding and diagnosis identified reports on prospective population-based studies published between January, 1995, and July, 2007. The studies included in the previous systematic review were reassessed with the new inclusion criteria. Changes in case fatality over time and the effect of age and sex were quantified with weighted linear regression. Regional differences were analysed with linear regression analysis, and the regions of interest were subsequently defined as reference regions and compared with the other regions. 33 studies (23 of which were published in 1995 or later) were included that described 39 study periods. These studies reported on 8739 patients, of whom 7659 [88%] were reported on after 1995. 11 of the studies that were included in the previous review did not meet the current, more stringent, inclusion criteria. The mean age of patients had increased in the period 1973 to 2002 from 52 to 62 years. Case fatality varied from 8.3% to 66.7% between studies and decreased 0.8% per year (95% CI 0.2 to 1.3). The decrease was unchanged after adjustment for sex, but the decrease per year was 0.4% (-0.5 to 1.2) after adjustment for age. Case fatality was 11.8% (3.8 to 19.9) lower in Japan than it was in Europe, the USA, Australia, and New Zealand. The unadjusted decrease in case fatality excluding the data for Japan was 0.6% per year (0.0 to 1.1), a 17% decrease over the three decades. Six studies reported data on case morbidity, but these were insufficient to assess changes over time. Despite an increase in the mean age of patients with SAH, case-fatality rates have decreased by 17% between 1973 and 2002 and show potentially important regional differences. This decrease coincides with the introduction of improved management strategies. Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research; ZonMw.
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              Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends.

              To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45,821,896 person-years. Incidences per 100,000 person-years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45-55 years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25 years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85 years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55 years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100,000 person-years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45 years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CED
                Cerebrovasc Dis
                10.1159/issn.1015-9770
                Cerebrovascular Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                1015-9770
                1421-9786
                2013
                March 2013
                07 February 2013
                : 35
                : 2
                : 93-112
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNeurology and bNeurosurgery, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, and cDepartment of Radiology, University of Essen, Essen, Germany; dDepartment of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; eDepartment Neurology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Prof. Dr. Thorsten Steiner, Klinikum Frankfurt Höchst, Gotenstrasse 6–8, DE–65929 Frankfurt (Germany), E-Mail Thorsten_steiner@med.uni-heidelberg.de
                Article
                346087 Cerebrovasc Dis 2013;35:93–112
                10.1159/000346087
                23406828
                21cfb7c4-dc29-40dc-b2c7-a3a0413d13bd
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, Pages: 20
                Categories
                Guidelines

                Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Neurosciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
                Perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage,Subarachnoid haemorrhage,Guidelines,Intracranial aneurysm,Management

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