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      Association between respiratory impedance measured by forced oscillation technique and exacerbations in patients with COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          It is well known that increased airflow limitation as measured by spirometry is associated with the risk of exacerbation in patients with COPD. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method used to assess respiratory impedance (resistance and reactance) with minimal patient cooperation required. The clinical utility of the FOT in assessing the risk of exacerbations of COPD is yet to be determined. We examined the relationship between respiratory impedance as measured by FOT and exacerbations in patients with COPD.

          Materials and methods

          Among 310 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–IV) who presented at the outpatient clinic of the Showa University Hospital from September 2014 through January 2015, 119 were collected and assigned into 2 groups according to their history of exacerbation: exacerbators and nonexacerbators. Respiratory resistance components and respiratory reactance components, as measured by FOT, were compared between the two groups.

          Results

          Exacerbators were significantly older and had a higher white blood cell count than nonexacerbators. Resistance at 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz (X5), resonant frequency (Fres), and area of low reactance (ALX) differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, among patients with stage II COPD, there were significant differences in X5, Fres, and ALX between the two groups despite no significant differences in respiratory function as assessed by spirometry. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the reactance components rather than the resistance components were associated with the risk of exacerbation.

          Conclusion

          There were significant differences in respiratory impedance between exacerbators and nonexacerbators in patients with moderate COPD. FOT is a promising tool for assessing future exacerbations in patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Increased risk of exacerbation and hospitalization in subjects with an overlap phenotype: COPD-asthma.

          Several COPD phenotypes have been described; the COPD-asthma overlap is one of the most recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three subgroups (asthma, COPD, and COPD-asthma overlap) in the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO) study population, to describe their main characteristics, and to determine the association of the COPD-asthma overlap group with exacerbations, hospitalizations, limitations due to physical health, and perception of general health status (GHS). The PLATINO study is a multicenter population-based survey carried out in five Latin American cities. Outcomes were self-reported exacerbations (defined by deterioration of breathing symptoms that affected usual daily activities or caused missed work), hospitalizations due to exacerbations, physical health limitations, and patients' perception of their GHS obtained by questionnaire. Subjects were classified in three specific groups: COPD--a postbronchodilator (post-BD) FEV₁/FVC ratio of < 0.70; asthma--presence of wheezing in the last year and a minimum post-BD increase in FEV₁ or FVC of 12% and 200 mL; and overlap COPD-asthma--the combination of the two. Out of 5,044 subjects, 767 were classified as having COPD (12%), asthma (1.7%), and COPD-asthma overlap (1.8%). Subjects with COPD-asthma overlap had more respiratory symptoms, had worse lung function, used more respiratory medication, had more hospitalization and exacerbations, and had worse GHS. After adjusting for confounders, the COPD-asthma overlap was associated with higher risks for exacerbations (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-4.12), hospitalizations (PR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.45-11.67), and worse GHS (PR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) compared with those with COPD. The coexisting COPD-asthma phenotype is possibly associated with increased disease severity.
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            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in the COPDGene study: associated radiologic phenotypes.

            To test the hypothesis-given the increasing emphasis on quantitative computed tomographic (CT) phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-that a relationship exists between COPD exacerbation frequency and quantitative CT measures of emphysema and airway disease. This research protocol was approved by the institutional review board of each participating institution, and all participants provided written informed consent. One thousand two subjects who were enrolled in the COPDGene Study and met the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria for COPD with quantitative CT analysis were included. Total lung emphysema percentage was measured by using the attenuation mask technique with a -950-HU threshold. An automated program measured the mean wall thickness and mean wall area percentage in six segmental bronchi. The frequency of COPD exacerbation in the prior year was determined by using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed to examine the relationship of exacerbation frequency with lung function and quantitative CT measurements. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for lung function, bronchial wall thickness and total lung emphysema percentage were associated with COPD exacerbation frequency. Each 1-mm increase in bronchial wall thickness was associated with a 1.84-fold increase in annual exacerbation rate (P = .004). For patients with 35% or greater total emphysema, each 5% increase in emphysema was associated with a 1.18-fold increase in this rate (P = .047). Greater lung emphysema and airway wall thickness were associated with COPD exacerbations, independent of the severity of airflow obstruction. Quantitative CT can help identify subgroups of patients with COPD who experience exacerbations for targeted research and therapy development for individual phenotypes. © RSNA, 2011.
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              Detection of expiratory flow limitation in COPD using the forced oscillation technique.

              Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during tidal breathing is a major determinant of dynamic hyperinflation and exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current methods of detecting this are either invasive or unsuited to following changes breath-by-breath. It was hypothesised that tidal flow limitation would substantially reduce the total respiratory system reactance (Xrs) during expiration, and that this reduction could be used to reliably detect if EFL was present. To test this, 5-Hz forced oscillations were applied at the mouth in seven healthy subjects and 15 COPD patients (mean +/- sD forced expiratory volume in one second was 36.8 +/- 11.5% predicted) during quiet breathing. COPD breaths were analysed (n=206) and classified as flow-limited if flow decreased as alveolar pressure increased, indeterminate if flow decreased at constant alveolar pressure, or nonflow-limited. Of these, 85 breaths were flow-limited, 80 were not and 41 were indeterminate. Among other indices, mean inspiratory minus mean expiratory Xrs (deltaXrs) and minimum expiratory Xrs (Xexp,min) identified flow-limited breaths with 100% specificity and sensitivity using a threshold between 2.53-3.12 cmH2O x s x L(-1) (deltaXrs) and -7.38- -6.76 cmH2O x s x L(-1) (Xexp,min) representing 6.0% and 3.9% of the total range of values respectively. No flow-limited breaths were seen in the normal subjects by either method. Within-breath respiratory system reactance provides an accurate, reliable and noninvasive technique to detect expiratory flow limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                22 December 2017
                : 13
                : 79-89
                Affiliations
                Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Akihiko Tanaka, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Showa University, 1–5-8, Hatanodai, Shinagawa-Ku, Tokyo 142–8666, Japan, Tel +81 33 784 8532, Fax +81 33 784 8742, Email tanakaa@ 123456med.showa-u.ac.jp
                Article
                copd-13-079
                10.2147/COPD.S146669
                5744737
                © 2018 Yamagami et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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