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      Optimal Courses of Chemotherapy Combined with Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

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          This retrospective study compared effectiveness between ≤4 cycles and ≥5 cycles of L-asparaginase/pegaspargase-based chemoradiation in newly diagnosed low-risk extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type classified according to the Prognostic Index of Natural Killer (PINK) lymphoma model.

          Patients and Methods

          Patients were categorized into ≤4-cycle (2–4 chemotherapy cycles, n = 166) and ≥5-cycle groups (5–6 cycles, n = 86). Propensity score matching analysis was used to reduce potential confounding bias between the two groups. Treatment responses, adverse events, and survival outcomes between the two groups were analyzed.


          No matter before or after matching (65 in the ≤4-cycle group, 65 in the ≥5-cycle group), response rates and survival outcomes were similar between the ≤4-cycle and ≥5-cycle groups. Incidences of grade 1–2 anemia and transaminase elevation were higher in the ≥5-cycle group. After matching, for stage IE disease, there were no differences in response rates and survival outcomes between the two groups. For stage IIE disease, the complete response rate was higher in the ≥5-cycle group (72.4% vs 92.6%, p = 0.049), and the 3-year overall survival (65.5% vs 85.2%, p = 0.024) and 3-year progression-free survival (58.6% vs 81.5%, p = 0.027) rates were significantly extended in the ≥5-cycle group.


          When chemoradiotherapy strategies with L-asparaginase/pegaspargase-based regimens are applied to modern low-risk ENKTL patients classified according to the PINK model, it may be better to moderately extend chemotherapy courses in patients with stage IIE disease.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

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          The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.
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            Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a prognostic model from a retrospective multicenter study.

            Patients with natural killer T (NK/T) -cell lymphomas have poor survival outcome, and for this condition there is no optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to design a prognostic model specifically for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, which can identify high-risk patients who need more aggressive therapy. This multicenter retrospective study was comprised of 262 patients who were diagnosed with NK/T-cell lymphoma. After a median follow-up duration of 51.2 months, 5-year overall survival rate in 262 patients was 49.5%. Prognostic factors for survival were "B" symptoms (P = .0003; relative risk, 2.202; 95% CI, 1.446 to 3.353), stage (P = .0006; relative risk, 2.366; 95% CI, 1.462 to 3.828), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = .0005; relative risk, 2.278; 95% CI, 1.442 to 3.598), and regional lymph nodes (P = .0044; relative risk, 1.546; 95% CI, 1.009 to 2.367). Of 262 patients, 219 had complete information on four parameters. We identified four different risk groups: group 1, no adverse factor; group 2, one factor; group 3, two factors; and group 4, three or four factors. The new model showed a superior prognostic discrimination as compared with the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Notably, the distribution of patients was balanced when a new model was adopted (group 1, 27%; group 2, 31%; group 3, 20%; group 4, 22%), whereas 81% of patients were categorized as low or low-intermediate risks using IPI. The newly proposed model for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma demonstrated a more balanced distribution of patients into four groups with better prognostic discrimination as compared with the IPI.
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              A prognostic index for natural killer cell lymphoma after non-anthracycline-based treatment: a multicentre, retrospective analysis.

              The clinical outcome of extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) has improved substantially as a result of new treatment strategies with non-anthracycline-based chemotherapies and upfront use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. A new prognostic model based on the outcomes obtained with these contemporary treatments was warranted.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                02 December 2020
                : 16
                : 1151-1163
                [1 ]Department of Comprehensive Chemotherapy/Daytime Chemotherapy, Hunan Cancer Hospital , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Lymphoma and Hematology, Hunan Cancer Hospital , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Oncology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hui Zhou Department of Lymphoma and Hematology, Hunan Cancer Hospital , Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 731 89762281 Email zhouhui9403@126.com
                © 2020 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 9, References: 52, Pages: 13
                Original Research


                low-risk, extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, chemotherapy courses


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