Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is the cause of approximately 80-85% of naturally occurring cases of hyperadrenocorticism(HAC) in canines and is triggered by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma or hyperplasia of the corticotroph in the pituitary anterior lobe or intermediate lobe. Transsphenoidal surgery(TSS) is an effective treatment that can directly remove pituitary tumors that cause PDH in canines under a single course of general anesthesia. However, careful evaluations of the definitive diagnosis, adenoma size and growth rate, relationship with surrounding tissue, general condition, and neurosurgical procedural skill involved in each case are important to determine TSS suitability. The basic principle is to confirm that the present HAC case is PDH, that is, an ACTH-producing adenoma or the hyperplasia of the corticotroph originating from either the pituitary anterior or intermediate lobe. Evaluations based on endocrinology, particularly plasma ACTH concentration, and imaging diagnosis, particularly MRI is essential for definitive diagnosis. Enlarged pituitary tumors can shorten the post-TSS survival time, increase the recurrence rate of clinical symptoms, and increase the risk for developing permanent central diabetes insipidus. Therefore, complete removal of adenomas of up to Grade IIIA according to the MRI-based classification system is relatively easy to achieve with TSS, and long-term remission and survival can be expected.