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      Real-time Detection and Monitoring of Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP) Reaction Using Self-quenching and De-quenching Fluorogenic Probes

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          Abstract

          Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification (iNAAT) technique known for its simplicity, sensitivity and speed. Its low-cost feature has resulted in its wide scale application, especially in low resource settings. The major disadvantage of LAMP is its heavy reliance on indirect detection methods like turbidity and non-specific dyes, which often leads to the detection of false positive results. In the present work, we have developed a direct detection approach, whereby a labelled loop probe quenched in its unbound state, fluoresces only when bound to its target (amplicon). Henceforth, referred to as Fluorescence of Loop Primer Upon Self Dequenching-LAMP (FLOS-LAMP), it allows for the sequence-specific detection of LAMP amplicons. The FLOS-LAMP concept was validated for rapid detection of the human pathogen, Varicella-zoster virus, from clinical samples. The FLOS-LAMP had a limit of detection of 500 copies of the target with a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 96.8% and 100%, respectively. The high level of specificity is a major advance and solves one of the main shortcomings of the LAMP technology, i.e. false positives. Self-quenching/de-quenching probes were further used with other LAMP primer sets and different fluorophores, thereby demonstrating its versatility and adaptability.

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          Most cited references30

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          Molecular beacons: probes that fluoresce upon hybridization.

          We have developed novel nucleic acid probes that recognize and report the presence of specific nucleic acids in homogeneous solutions. These probes undergo a spontaneous fluorogenic conformational change when they hybridize to their targets. Only perfectly complementary targets elicit this response, as hybridization does not occur when the target contains a mismatched nucleotide or a deletion. The probes are particularly suited for monitoring the synthesis of specific nucleic acids in real time. When used in nucleic acid amplification assays, gene detection is homogeneous and sensitive, and can be carried out in a sealed tube. When introduced into living cells, these probes should enable the origin, movement, and fate of specific mRNAs to be traced.
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            Detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by turbidity derived from magnesium pyrophosphate formation.

            The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method that uses only one type of enzyme. One of the characteristics of the LAMP method is its ability to synthesize extremely large amount of DNA. Accordingly, a large amount of by-product, pyrophosphate ion, is produced, yielding white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate in the reaction mixture. Judging the presence or absence of this white precipitate allows easy distinction of whether nucleic acid was amplified by the LAMP method. Since an increase in the turbidity of the reaction mixture according to the production of precipitate correlates with the amount of DNA synthesized, real-time monitoring of the LAMP reaction was achieved by real-time measurement of turbidity. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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              Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy naphthol blue.

              Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel gene amplification method, enables the synthesis of larger amounts of both DNA and a visible byproduct--namely, magnesium pyrophosphate--without thermal cycling. A positive reaction is indicated by the turbidity of the reaction solution or the color change after adding an intercalating dye to the reaction solution, but the use of such dyes has certain limitations. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), a metal indicator for calcium and a colorimetric reagent for alkaline earth metal ions, was used for a new colorimetric assay of the LAMP reaction. Preaddition of 120 microM HNB to the LAMP reaction solution did not inhibit amplification efficiency. A positive reaction is indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue. The LAMP reaction with HNB could also be carried out in a 96-well microplate, and the reaction could be measured at 650 nm with a microplate reader. The colorimetric LAMP method using HNB would be helpful for high-throughput DNA and RNA detection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                vijay.gadkar@cw.bc.ca
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                3 April 2018
                3 April 2018
                2018
                : 8
                : 5548
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Virology & Infection Control, Children’s & Women’s Health Center of British Columbia, 4500 Oak St, Vancouver, V6H 3N1 Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, GRID grid.17091.3e, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, , University of British Columbia and Children’s & Women’s Health Center of British Columbia, ; 4500 Oak St, Vancouver, V6H 3N1 Canada
                Article
                23930
                10.1038/s41598-018-23930-1
                5883045
                29615801
                220c0efb-40b3-46e8-a4f7-9cb6de5d54fe
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 1 February 2018
                : 22 March 2018
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