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      Repair Schwann cell update: Adaptive reprogramming, EMT, and stemness in regenerating nerves

      1 , 2

      Glia

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 98

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          The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves.

          During the development of peripheral nerves, neural crest cells generate myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells in a process that parallels gliogenesis from the germinal layers of the CNS. Unlike central gliogenesis, neural crest development involves a protracted embryonic phase devoted to the generation of, first, the Schwann cell precursor and then the immature Schwann cell, a cell whose fate as a myelinating or non-myelinating cell has yet to be determined. Embryonic nerves therefore offer a particular opportunity to analyse the early steps of gliogenesis from transient multipotent stem cells, and to understand how this process is integrated with organogenesis of peripheral nerves.
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            The cellular and molecular basis of peripheral nerve regeneration.

             S-Y Fu,  T C Gordon (2015)
            Functional recovery from peripheral nerve injury and repair depends on a multitude of factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to neurons. Neuronal survival after axotomy is a prerequisite for regeneration and is facilitated by an array of trophic factors from multiple sources, including neurotrophins, neuropoietic cytokines, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factors (GDNFs). Axotomized neurons must switch from a transmitting mode to a growth mode and express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, and actin, as well as an array of novel neuropeptides and cytokines, all of which have the potential to promote axonal regeneration. Axonal sprouts must reach the distal nerve stump at a time when its growth support is optimal. Schwann cells in the distal stump undergo proliferation and phenotypical changes to prepare the local environment to be favorable for axonal regeneration. Schwann cells play an indispensable role in promoting regeneration by increasing their synthesis of surface cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), such as N-CAM, Ng-CAM/L1, N-cadherin, and L2/HNK-1, by elaborating basement membrane that contains many extracellular matrix proteins, such as laminin, fibronectin, and tenascin, and by producing many neurotrophic factors and their receptors. However, the growth support provided by the distal nerve stump and the capacity of the axotomized neurons to regenerate axons may not be sustained indefinitely. Axonal regenerations may be facilitated by new strategies that enhance the growth potential of neurons and optimize the growth support of the distal nerve stump in combination with prompt nerve repair.
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              Notch inhibition induces cochlear hair cell regeneration and recovery of hearing after acoustic trauma.

              Hearing loss due to damage to auditory hair cells is normally irreversible because mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. Here, we show that new hair cells can be induced and can cause partial recovery of hearing in ears damaged by noise trauma, when Notch signaling is inhibited by a γ-secretase inhibitor selected for potency in stimulating hair cell differentiation from inner ear stem cells in vitro. Hair cell generation resulted from an increase in the level of bHLH transcription factor Atoh1 in response to inhibition of Notch signaling. In vivo prospective labeling of Sox2-expressing cells with a Cre-lox system unambiguously demonstrated that hair cell generation resulted from transdifferentiation of supporting cells. Manipulating cell fate of cochlear sensory cells in vivo by pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling is thus a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of deafness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Glia
                Glia
                Wiley
                08941491
                March 2019
                March 2019
                January 11 2019
                : 67
                : 3
                : 421-437
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cell and Developmental Biology; University College London; London United Kingdom
                [2 ]John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences; University of Cambridge; Cambridge United Kingdom
                Article
                10.1002/glia.23532
                © 2019

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