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      The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

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          COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

          Patients and methods

          In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.


          The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P=0.001), average caloric intake ( P=0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P<0.05), while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL among the patients of the supplementation group ( P=0.008). Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control group, the differences were not significant ( P=0.13).


          The findings of this research indicate that the consumption of CLA supplementation can be effective in regulating the appetite and improving the nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL .

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          Most cited references 34

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          Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

          Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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            Cytokines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

             K. Fan Chung (2001)
            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic obstruction of expiratory flow affecting peripheral airways, associated with chronic bronchitis (mucus hypersecretion with goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia) and emphysema (destruction of airway parenchyma), together with fibrosis and tissue damage, and inflammation of the small airways. Cytokines are extracellular signalling proteins. Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-8 have been measured in sputum, with further increases during exacerbations, and the bronchiolar epithelium over-expresses monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and IL-8. IL-8 can account for some chemotactic activity of sputum, and sputum IL-8 levels correlate with airway bacterial load and blood myeloperoxidase levels. The expression of chemokines such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) may underlie the airway eosinophilia observed in some COPD patients. Cytokines may be involved in tissue remodelling. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta stimulate macrophages to produced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and bronchial epithelial cells to produce extracellular matrix glycoproteins such as tenascin. Increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) and of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occurs in the epithelium and submucosal cells of patients with chronic bronchitis. TGFbeta and EGF activate proliferation of fibroblasts, while activation of the EGF receptor leads to mucin gene expression. The cytokine profile seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is different from that observed in asthma. The role of these cytokines needs to be defined and there is a potential for anticytokine therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a cohort study.

              Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to traffic-related air pollution over 35 years on the incidence of COPD in a prospective cohort study. We followed 57,053 participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort in the Hospital Discharge Register for their first hospital admission for COPD between 1993 and 2006. We estimated the annual mean levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) at all residential addresses of the cohort participants since 1971 to an event or 2006 and used indicators of traffic near the residential address at recruitment. We assessed the association between exposure to air pollution and COPD incidence by Cox regression analyses for the full cohort, and for participants with and without comorbid conditions, including asthma, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. A first hospital admission for COPD was recorded for 1,786 (3.4%) of 52,799 eligible subjects between recruitment (1993-1997) and 2006. COPD incidence was associated with the 35-year mean NO₂ level (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.14, per interquartile range of 5.8 μg/m³), with stronger associations in subjects with diabetes (1.29; 1.05-1.50) and asthma (1.19; 1.03-1.38). Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may contribute to the development of COPD with possibly enhanced susceptibility in people with diabetes and asthma.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                31 October 2016
                : 11
                : 2711-2720
                [1 ]Pulmonary Division
                [2 ]Internal Medicine Department
                [3 ]Biochemistry and Nutrition Department
                [4 ]Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Somaieh Matin, Internal Medicine Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Jeddi Street, Ardabil 5615783143, Iran, Tel +98 453 325 1401, Fax +98 453 325 1410, Email smh.matin@
                © 2016 Ghobadi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                il1β, nutritional status, appetite, cla, copd


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