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      Residue and Dietary Risk Assessment of Chiral Cyflumetofen in Apple

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          Abstract

          Ultra-performance convergence chromatography is an environmentally-friendly analytical method that uses dramatically reduced amounts of organic solvents. In addition, a robust and highly sensitive chiral separation method was developed for the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen by using ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, which shows that stereoisomer recoveries determined for various apple parts ranged from 78.3% to 119.9%, with the relative standard deviations being lower than 14.0%. The half-lives of (−)-cyflumetofen and (+)-cyflumetofen obtained under 5-fold applied dosage equal to 22.13 and 22.23 days, respectively. For 1.5-fold applied dosage, the respective values were determined as 22.42 and 23.64 days, i.e., the degradation of (−)-cyflumetofen was insignificantly favored over that of its enantiomer. Importantly, cyflumetofen was unevenly distributed in apples, with its relative contents in apple peel, peduncle, and pomace equal to 50%, 22%, and 16%, respectively. The proposed method can be used to efficiently separate and quantify chiral pesticide with advantages of a shorter analysis time, greater sensitivity, and better environmental compatibility. Additionally, the consumption of apples with residue of cyflumetofen did not pose a health risk to the population if the cyflumetofen applied under satisfactory agricultural practices after the long-term dietary risk assessment.

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          Most cited references 43

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                02 May 2018
                May 2018
                : 23
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Quality and Safety Control in Storage and Transport Process/Laboratory of Agro-products Quality Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100193, China; 13520410391@ 123456163.com (J.G.); liminmin@ 123456caas.cn (M.L.); wangfengzhong@ 123456sina.com (F.W.); sunyufeng@ 123456caas.cn (Y.S.); luciatime@ 123456foxmail.com (J.L.); jinnuo@ 123456caas.cn (N.J.); huangyatao@ 123456caas.cn (Y.H.); ljiam88@ 123456sina.com (J.L.)
                [2 ]Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Passage des Déportés 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium; frederic.francis@ 123456ulg.ac.be
                [3 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China; liuyg@ 123456th.btbu.edu.cn
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kongzhiqiang@ 123456caas.cn (Z.K.); fanbeicaas@ 123456163.com (B.F.); Tel.: +86-10-6281-5969 (Z.K.); +86-10-6281-5969 (B.F.)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                molecules-23-01060
                10.3390/molecules23051060
                6099807
                29724046
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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