+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Land-Use Conversion Changes the Multifractal Features of Particle-Size Distribution on the Loess Plateau of China


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Analyzing the dynamics of soil particle-size distributions (PSDs), soil nutrients, and erodibility are very important for understanding the changes of soil structure and quality after long-term land-use conversion. We applied multifractal Rényi spectra ( D q) and singularity spectra ( f(α)) to characterize PSDs 35 years after conversions from cropland to shrubland with Caragana microphylla (shrubland I), shrubland with Hippophae rhamnoides (shrubland II), forested land, and grassland on the Loess Plateau of China. Multifractal parameters (capacity dimension ( D 0), entropy dimension ( D 1), D 1/ D 0, correlation dimension ( D 2), and Hölder exponent of order zero (α 0)) were used to analyze the changes of PSDs. D q and f(α) characterized the PSDs well and sensitively represented the changes in PSDs after conversion. All types of land-use conversion significantly improved the properties of the topsoil (0–10 cm), but the effect of shrubland I and even forested land decreased with depth. All types of land-use conversion significantly increased D 1 and D 2 in the topsoil, and D 1 and D 2 in the 10–50 cm layers of shrubland II, forested land, and grassland and D 1 in the 50–100 cm layers of shrubland II were significantly higher relative to the control. Both D 1 and D 2 were positively correlated with the contents of soil nutrients and fine particles and were negatively correlated with soil erosion, indicating that D 1 and D 2 were potential indices for quantifying changes in soil properties and erosion. In conclusion, all types of land-use conversion significantly improved the conditions of the topsoil, but conversion from cropland to shrubland II, forested land, and grassland, especially shrubland II and grassland, were more effective for improving soil conditions in deeper layers.

          Related collections

          Most cited references48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The infinite number of generalized dimensions of fractals and strange attractors

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            A Modeling Approach to Determining the Relationship Between Erosion and Soil Productivity

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

              The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage ( 5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer < broadleaf, evergreen < deciduous forests). Restoration age was the main factor, not temperature and precipitation, affecting soil C stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                05 August 2016
                August 2016
                : 13
                : 8
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau of Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China; suncaili2007@ 123456126.com (C.S.); gbliu@ 123456ms.iswc.ac.cn (G.L.)
                [2 ]Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xuesha100@ 123456163.com ; Tel./Fax: +86-29-8701-2907
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Public health
                particle-size distribution,grain for green project,multifractal feature,soil erosion


                Comment on this article