Serum vanadium, aluminum, silicon and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin levels as well as the red cell count, hemoglobin and systolic blood pressure were simultaneously measured in 80 chronic hemodialysis patients. The serum vanadium level was positively correlated with the serum levels of aluminum, silicon and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin as well as the systolic blood pressure, and was inversely correlated with the red cell count and hemoglobin. The mean serum vanadium level was 18.4 ± 7.6 ng/ml before hemodialysis and decreased to 13.0 ± 5.30 ng/ml at the completion of dialysis. The dialysate vanadium level increased from 0.4 ± 0.2 (inflow) to 1.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml (outflow). It was concluded that vanadium was transferred from blood to dialysate when purified water was used in the preparation of the dialysate.