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      Comparison of Mast Burkholderia Cepacia, Ashdown + Gentamicin, and Burkholderia Pseudomallei Selective Agar for the Selective Growth of Burkholderia Spp.

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          Abstract

          Reliable identification of pathogenic Burkholderia spp. like Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei in clinical samples is desirable. Three different selective media were assessed for reliability and selectivity with various Burkholderia spp. and nontarget organisms.

          Mast Burkholderia cepacia agar, Ashdown + gentamicin agar, and B. pseudomallei selective agar were compared. A panel of 116 reference strains and well-characterized clinical isolates, comprising 30 B. pseudomallei, 20 B. mallei, 18 other Burkholderia spp., and 48 nontarget organisms, was used for this assessment.

          While all B. pseudomallei strains grew on all three tested selective agars, the other Burkholderia spp. showed a diverse growth pattern. Nontarget organisms, i.e., nonfermentative rod-shaped bacteria, other species, and yeasts, grew on all selective agars. Colony morphology did not allow unambiguous discrimination.

          While the assessed selective media reliably allowed the growth of a wide range of B. pseudomallei strains, growth of other Burkholderia spp. is only partially ensured. Growth of various nontarget organisms has to be considered. Therefore, the assessed media can only be used in combination with other confirmative tests in the diagnostic procedure for the screening for melioidosis or glanders.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Multilocus sequence typing scheme that provides both species and strain differentiation for the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

          A single multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed for precise characterization of the opportunistic pathogens of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a group composed of at least nine closely related species. Seven conserved housekeeping genes were selected after a comparison of five Burkholderia species, and a collection of strains was subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis using a nested PCR amplification approach for each gene. MLST differentiated all nine current BCC species and identified 114 sequence types within a collection of 119 strains. No differentiation was found between strains recovered from environmental or clinical sources. The improved resolution in strain identification offered by MLST was able to identify previously characterized epidemic strain lineages and also demonstrated the presence of four novel potential species groups within the complex. There was also evidence for recombination having an important role in the recent evolution of individual BCC species. This highly transferable, validated, MLST scheme provides a new means to assist in species identification as well as unambiguous strain discrimination of the BCC by a single approach. It is also the first MLST scheme designed at the outset to incorporate multiple species and should facilitate global epidemiological investigations of the BCC.
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            Development of a recA gene-based identification approach for the entire Burkholderia genus.

            Burkholderia is an important bacterial genus containing species of ecological, biotechnological, and pathogenic interest. With their taxonomy undergoing constant revision and the phenotypic similarity of several species, correct identification of Burkholderia is difficult. A genetic scheme based on the recA gene has greatly enhanced the identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex species. However, the PCR developed for the latter approach was limited by its specificity for the complex. By alignment of existing and novel Burkholderia recA sequences, we designed new PCR primers and evaluated their specificity by testing a representative panel of Burkholderia strains. PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of an 869-bp portion of the Burkholderia recA gene was not sufficiently discriminatory. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis of this recA fragment differentiated both putative and known Burkholderia species and all members of the B. cepacia complex. In addition, it enabled the design of a Burkholderia genus-specific recA PCR that produced a 385-bp amplicon, the sequence of which was also able to discriminate all species examined. Phylogenetic analysis of 188 novel recA genes enabled clarification of the taxonomic position of several important Burkholderia strains and revealed the presence of four novel B. cepacia complex recA lineages. Although the recA phylogeny could not be used as a means to differentiate B. cepacia complex strains recovered from clinical infection versus the natural environment, it did facilitate the identification of clonal strain types of B. cepacia, B. stabilis, and B. ambifaria capable of residing in both niches.
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              Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis patients.

              The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                09 January 2017
                March 2017
                : 7
                : 1
                : 15-36
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Dermatology, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
                [2 ] CBRN Defence, Safety and Environmental Protection School, Science Division
                [3 ]Bundeswehr Medical Academy , Munich, Germany
                [4 ]Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health , Jena, Germany
                [5 ] Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg , Hamburg, Germany
                [6 ] Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock , Rostock, Germany
                [7 ] Department of Preventive Medicine, Bundeswehr Medical Academy , Munich, Germany
                Author notes
                * Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany; 0049-40-6947-28700; 0049-40-6947-28709; Frickmann@ 123456bni-hamburg.de

                Declaration of interest

                The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2016.00037
                5372478
                © 2017, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 29
                Funding
                Funding sources: There has been no source of funding.
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                Original Article

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