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      Fenretinide inhibits macrophage inflammatory mediators and controls hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway

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          Abstract

          Fenretinide is a novel anticancer agent reported to exhibit anti-invasive and antimetastatic activities. It has also been shown to improve obesity and diabetes, although the effects of fenretinide on hypertension are still unknown, and the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we have shown that treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in RAW264.7 macrophages, and pretreatment with fenretinide reversed the effect of LPS on PPARγ expression. In addition, LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were dose-dependently reversed by fenretinide, and the effects of fenretinide on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production were blocked by treatment with PPARγ antagonist. Moreover, fenretinide decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrogen oxide production. These effects were blocked by the pretreatment with PPARγ antagonist in a dose-dependent manner, indicating fenretinide activated PPARγ to exert anti-inflammation activity. In view of the role of inflammation in hypertension and the anti-inflammatory action of fenretinide, we found that administration of fenretinide in spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly decreased blood pressure. Taken together, these results indicate that fenretinide might be a potent antihypertensive agent that works by suppressing inflammation via activating PPARγ.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Nitric oxide and macrophage function.

          At the interface between the innate and adaptive immune systems lies the high-output isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 or iNOS). This remarkable molecular machine requires at least 17 binding reactions to assemble a functional dimer. Sustained catalysis results from the ability of NOS2 to attach calmodulin without dependence on elevated Ca2+. Expression of NOS2 in macrophages is controlled by cytokines and microbial products, primarily by transcriptional induction. NOS2 has been documented in macrophages from human, horse, cow, goat, sheep, rat, mouse, and chicken. Human NOS2 is most readily observed in monocytes or macrophages from patients with infectious or inflammatory diseases. Sustained production of NO endows macrophages with cytostatic or cytotoxic activity against viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and tumor cells. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic actions of NO are enhanced by other macrophage products such as acid, glutathione, cysteine, hydrogen peroxide, or superoxide. Although the high-output NO pathway probably evolved to protect the host from infection, suppressive effects on lymphocyte proliferation and damage to other normal host cells confer upon NOS2 the same protective/destructive duality inherent in every other major component of the immune response.
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            Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide.

            Superoxide dismutase reduces injury in many disease processes, implicating superoxide anion radical (O2-.) as a toxic species in vivo. A critical target of superoxide may be nitric oxide (NO.) produced by endothelium, macrophages, neutrophils, and brain synaptosomes. Superoxide and NO. are known to rapidly react to form the stable peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). We have shown that peroxynitrite has a pKa of 7.49 +/- 0.06 at 37 degrees C and rapidly decomposes once protonated with a half-life of 1.9 sec at pH 7.4. Peroxynitrite decomposition generates a strong oxidant with reactivity similar to hydroxyl radical, as assessed by the oxidation of deoxyribose or dimethyl sulfoxide. Product yields indicative of hydroxyl radical were 5.1 +/- 0.1% and 24.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively, of added peroxynitrite. Product formation was not affected by the metal chelator diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, suggesting that iron was not required to catalyze oxidation. In contrast, desferrioxamine was a potent, competitive inhibitor of peroxynitrite-initiated oxidation because of a direct reaction between desferrioxamine and peroxynitrite rather than by iron chelation. We propose that superoxide dismutase may protect vascular tissue stimulated to produce superoxide and NO. under pathological conditions by preventing the formation of peroxynitrite.
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              PPARs and molecular mechanisms of transrepression.

              In the last few years, PPARs have emerged as key regulators of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the mechanistic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that these effects result from inhibition of signal-dependent transcription factors that mediate inflammatory programs of gene activation. Several mechanisms underlying negative regulation of gene expression by PPARs have been described. Recent studies, using siRNA, microarray analysis and macrophage-specific knockout mice, have highlighted PPARs molecular transrepression mechanism in macrophages. Identification of their mechanism of action should help promote the understanding of the physiologic roles that PPARs play in immunity and contribute to the development of new therapeutic agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                01 November 2016
                : 10
                : 3591-3597
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chi-Mei Medical Center
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Holistic Care, Chi-Mei Medical Center
                [4 ]Research Center of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Horng-Yih Ou, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan 70403, Taiwan, Tel +886 6 235 3535, Fax +886 6 302 8130, Email wahoryi@ 123456mail.ncku.edu.tw
                Hung-Tsung Wu, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, 138, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan 70403, Taiwan, Tel +886 6 235 3535, Fax +886 6 275 4243, Email wuht0716@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-10-3591
                10.2147/DDDT.S114879
                5098527
                © 2016 Lin et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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