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      Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study

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          Abstract

          In the 2-year CLARITY study, cladribine tablets significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (vs placebo) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).

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          Most cited references 7

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          Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine)

           E Beutler (1992)
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            No evidence for higher risk of cancer in patients with multiple sclerosis taking cladribine

            Objective: To compare the cancer risk of cladribine and other disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in trials of people with relapsing multiple sclerosis (pwRMS). Methods: Meta-analysis of phase III trials of licensed DMDs for pwRMS and a phase III trial of cladribine (CLARITY). Cancer rates were compared using Fisher exact test. Results: Eleven trials were included. Investigated treatments included cladribine, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, teriflunomide, natalizumab, alemtuzumab, and glatiramer acetate. The cancer rate in the CLARITY treatment group (0.34%) was not increased compared to all other treatment groups, whether including placebo-controlled trials only (0.6%, p = 0.4631) or all trials, i.e., including those with an active comparator arm (0.67%, p = 0.3669). No cancer was reported in the CLARITY placebo group, whereas the combined cancer rate of all other placebo groups was 1.19% (p = 0.0159). The cancer rate of zero in the CLARITY placebo group was also lower than that in the phase III trial of cladribine in people with clinically isolated syndrome (ORACLE MS, 2.91%, p = 0.0012). In fact, no difference was detected between cancer rates in the treatment groups of CLARITY (0.34%) and ORACLE MS (0.49%) (p = 0.6546). Conclusions: Our study does not support an increased cancer risk from cladribine in the doses used in CLARITY and ORACLE MS, which previously contributed to refusal of market authorization of cladribine in Europe. Longer-term follow-up is required to assess the safety profile of cladribine, as well as currently licensed DMDs, to definitively assess cancer risk.
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              The treatment of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis with cladribine.

              A 2-year, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study was started in 1992 to evaluate cladribine, an immunosuppressive drug, in the treatment of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In the first year patients were given cladribine 0.10 mg/kg per day for 7 days as four monthly courses for a total of 2.8 mg/kg or placebo. During the second year patients treated with placebo during the first year were given i.v. infusions of 0.10 mg, 0.05 mg, and 0.05 mg of cladribine per kg of body weight per day for 7 consecutive days in three successive monthly courses, for a total dose of 1.4 mg/kg. Patients who had been treated previously with cladribine were crossed over to placebo. Analysis of the results revealed a favorable influence on the neurological performance scores, both in the Kurtze extended disability status and the Scripps neurological rating scale, and on MRI findings in patients treated with cladribine. In the first year the most striking finding was that while clinical deterioration continued in the placebo-treated patients, the condition of patients who received cladribine stabilized or even improved slightly. Toxicity and therapeutic response were dose-related.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Multiple Sclerosis Journal
                Mult Scler
                SAGE Publications
                1352-4585
                1477-0970
                December 20 2017
                September 05 2017
                :
                :
                : 135245851772760
                Article
                10.1177/1352458517727603
                28870107
                © 2017

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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