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      Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program targeting residents with urinary tract infections in three community long-term care facilities: a quasi-experimental study using time-series analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly commonly results in antibiotic administration and, in turn, contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug events, and increased costs. This is a major problem in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting, where residents frequently transition to and from the acute-care setting, often transporting drug-resistant organisms across the continuum of care. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) targeting urinary tract infections (UTIs) at community LTCFs.

          Methods

          This was a quasi-experimental study targeting antibiotic prescriptions for UTI using time-series analysis with 6-month retrospective pre-intervention and 6-month intervention period at three community LTCFs. The ASP team (infectious diseases (ID) pharmacist and ID physician) performed weekly prospective audit and feedback of consecutive prescriptions for UTI. Loeb clinical consensus criteria were used to assess appropriateness of antibiotics; recommendations were communicated to the primary treating provider by the ID pharmacist. Resident outcomes were recorded at subsequent visits. Generalized estimating equations using segmented regression were used to evaluate the impact of the ASP intervention on rates of antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance.

          Results

          One-hundred and four antibiotic prescriptions for UTI were evaluated during the intervention, and recommendations were made for change in therapy in 40 (38 %), out of which 10 (25 %) were implemented. Only eight (8 %) residents started on antibiotics for UTI met clinical criteria for antibiotic initiation. An immediate 26 % decrease in antibiotic prescriptions for UTI during the ASP was identified with a 6 % reduction continuing through the intervention period (95 % Confidence Interval ([CI)] for the difference: −8 to −3 %). Similarly, a 25 % immediate decrease in all antibiotic prescriptions was noted after introduction of the ASP with a 5 % reduction continuing throughout the intervention period (95 % CI: −8 to −2 %). No significant effect was noted on resistant organisms or Clostridium difficile.

          Conclusion

          Weekly prospective audit and feedback ASP in three community LTCFs over 6 months resulted in antibiotic utilization decreases but many lost opportunities for intervention.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship.

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            Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series studies in medication use research.

            Interrupted time series design is the strongest, quasi-experimental approach for evaluating longitudinal effects of interventions. Segmented regression analysis is a powerful statistical method for estimating intervention effects in interrupted time series studies. In this paper, we show how segmented regression analysis can be used to evaluate policy and educational interventions intended to improve the quality of medication use and/or contain costs.
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              A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents.

              Optimal decisions about the use of antibiotics and other antiinfective agents in critically ill patients require access to a large amount of complex information. We have developed a computerized decision-support program linked to computer-based patient records that can assist physicians in the use of antiinfective agents and improve the quality of care. This program presents epidemiologic information, along with detailed recommendations and warnings. The program recommends antiinfective regimens and courses of therapy for particular patients and provides immediate feedback. We prospectively studied the use of the computerized antiinfectives-management program for one year in a 12-bed intensive care unit. During the intervention period, all 545 patients admitted were cared for with the aid of the antiinfectives-management program. Measures of processes and outcomes were compared with those for the 1136 patients admitted to the same unit during the two years before the intervention period. The use of the program led to significant reductions in orders for drugs to which the patients had reported allergies (35, vs. 146 during the preintervention period; P<0.01), excess drug dosages (87 vs. 405, P<0.01), and antibiotic-susceptibility mismatches (12 vs. 206, P<0.01). There were also marked reductions in the mean number of days of excessive drug dosage (2.7 vs. 5.9, P<0.002) and in adverse events caused by antiinfective agents (4 vs. 28, P<0.02). In analyses of patients who received antiinfective agents, those treated during the intervention period who always received the regimens recommended by the computer program (n=203) had significant reductions, as compared with those who did not always receive the recommended regimens (n= 195) and those in the preintervention cohort (n = 766), in the cost of antiinfective agents (adjusted mean, $102 vs. $427 and $340, respectively; P<0.001), in total hospital costs (adjusted mean, $26,315 vs. $44,865 and $35,283; P<0.001), and in the length of the hospital stay days (adjusted mean, 10.0 vs. 16.7 and 12.9; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS; A computerized antiinfectives-management program can improve the quality of patient care and reduce costs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sarah.doernberg@ucsf.edu
                victoria.dudas@ucsf.edu
                kavita@trivediconsults.com
                Journal
                Antimicrob Resist Infect Control
                Antimicrob Resist Infect Control
                Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
                BioMed Central (London )
                2047-2994
                1 December 2015
                1 December 2015
                2015
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, room S-380, Box 0645, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
                [ ]UCSF Medical Center, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
                [ ]Trivedi Consultants, 1563 Solano Avenue, #443, Berkeley, CA 94707 USA
                Article
                95
                10.1186/s13756-015-0095-y
                4667475
                26634119
                © Doernberg et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2015

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