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      Higher Levels of Magnesium and Lower Levels of Calcium in Whole Blood Are Positively Correlated with the Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study

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          Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are essential for numerous kinds of metabolisms in human body. To investigate the associations between Mg and Ca and the ratio of Ca to Mg (Ca/Mg) in whole blood with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population, a matched case-control study including 204 MetS patients and 204 healthy controls (aged 48-89) was carried out in 2011. MetS were diagnosed according to the criteria of Chinese Diabetes Society. Controls had no abnormal metabolic components and were matched with cases by age, gender and region. Blood samples were collected in the morning after an overnight fast. Whole blood Mg and Ca were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Subjects who were male constituted 44.1% of the part of this study. The average age was 64.0 ± 7.18, and the average body mass index was 24.3 ± 3.75. The MetS group showed significantly higher Mg and lower Ca and Ca/Mg as compared with the control group. Comparing with the bottom tertile (T1) of Mg, increased ORs for MetS were found in median tertile (T2) and top tertile (T3) of Mg. For Ca, T2 and T3 were negatively associated with MetS. Inverse relationship was also found between Ca/Mg ratio and MetS. Our findings suggested that increased Mg and decreased Ca and Ca/Mg in whole blood were correlated with MetS in Chinese adults.

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          Most cited references 55

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          The concept of the metabolic syndrome has now been in existence for several decades; however, it has only been since some agreement on definitions of the syndrome was reached that it has been possible to compare the prevalence among populations worldwide. Just as the prevalence of the individual components of the syndrome varies among populations, so does the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome itself. Differences in genetic background, diet,levels of physical activity, population age and sex structure, levels of over- and undernutrition, and body habitus all influence the prevalence of both the metabolic syndrome and its components. Regardless of the underlying genetic and environmental influences that mediate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a higher prevalence will undoubtedly lead to undesirable outcomes such as cardiovascular disease.
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            Recently, a Joint Scientific Statement bridged differences between previous definitions of metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of US adults and to examine its correlates. We analyzed data for up to 3461 participants aged ≥ 20 years of the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using waist circumference thresholds of ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.3% among all adults, 36.1% among men, and 32.4% among women. Using racial- or ethnic-specific International Diabetes Federation criteria for waist circumference, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.5% for all participants, 41.9% for men, and 35.0% for women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 60-69 years. Prevalence was lower among African American men than White or Mexican American men, and lower among White women than among African American or Mexican American women. In a multivariate regression model, significant independent associations were noted for age (positive), gender (men higher than women), race or ethnicity (African Americans and participants of another race lower than Whites), educational status (inverse), hypercholesterolemia (positive), concentrations of C-reactive protein (positive), leisure time physical activity (inverse), microalbuminuria (positive), and hyperinsulinemia (positive). Additional adjustment for body mass index weakened many of the associations, with educational status and microalbuminuria no longer significant contributors to the model. Metabolic syndrome continues to be highly prevalent among adults in the US. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
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              Dietary calcium, vitamin D, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women.

              To examine whether and to what extent intakes of calcium and vitamin D are related to the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged or older women. We analyzed data from 10,066 women aged > or =45 years participating in the Women's Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who never used postmenopausal hormones. We used multiple logistic regression models to estimate multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs comparing different dietary intake levels of calcium and vitamin D. In age- and calorie-adjusted analyses, higher intakes of total, dietary, and supplemental calcium were significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. After further adjusting for smoking status, exercise, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, and parental history of myocardial infarction before age 60 years, the ORs of having the metabolic syndrome for increasing quintiles of total calcium intake were 1.00 (reference), 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.97), 0.84 (0.71-0.99), 0.70 (0.59-0.83), and 0.64 (0.54-0.77) (P for trend <0.0001). This association was not appreciably altered by additional adjustment for other dietary factors or total vitamin D intake. In contrast, neither total (P for trend = 0.13) nor supplemental (P for trend = 0.45) vitamin D was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Dietary vitamin D was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome but was not independent of total calcium intake. Similar strong relations between intakes of dairy products and metabolic syndrome were also observed. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors, the multivariable ORs comparing highest with lowest intake categories were 0.66 (0.55-0.80) (P for trend <0.0001) for total dairy products and 0.85 (0.71-1.02) (P for trend = 0.05) for total milk intake. Our results indicate that intakes of calcium and dairy products may be associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

                Author and article information

                Ann Nutr Metab
                Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
                Ann Nutr Metab
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ )
                November 2016
                18 October 2016
                : 69
                : 2
                : 125-134
                aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and bCenter for Experimental Teaching, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, cDepartment of Pathology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and dDepartment of Nutrition and Food Safety, Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, and eDepartment of Endocrinology and Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhejiang Putuo Hospital, Zhoushan, China
                Author notes
                *Yimin Zhu, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 866 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China), E-Mail
                450761 Ann Nutr Metab 2016;69:125-134
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 76, Pages: 10
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                Original Paper

                Medicine, General social science

                Magnesium, Metabolic syndrome, Ca to Mg ratio, Calcium


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