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      Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants


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          Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context.

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          Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance

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              Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance.

              Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious threats to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for drought and salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the global ecosystem) should be given high research priority in plant biotechnology programs. Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress-related genes. These genes are involved in the whole sequence of stress responses, such as signaling, transcriptional control, protection of membranes and proteins, and free-radical and toxic-compound scavenging. Recently, research into the molecular mechanisms of stress responses has started to bear fruit and, in parallel, genetic modification of stress tolerance has also shown promising results that may ultimately apply to agriculturally and ecologically important plants. The present review summarizes the recent advances in elucidating stress-response mechanisms and their biotechnological applications. Emphasis is placed on transgenic plants that have been engineered based on different stress-response mechanisms. The review examines the following aspects: regulatory controls, metabolite engineering, ion transport, antioxidants and detoxification, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and heat-shock proteins.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                30 June 2015
                : 6
                [1] 1Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, India
                [2] 2Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro Aveiro, Portugal
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zuhua He, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences – Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

                Reviewed by: Vasileios Fotopoulos, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus; Fang Chen, Yale University, USA

                *Correspondence: Naser A. Anjum, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal, anjum@ 123456ua.pt

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2015 Khan, Fatma, Per, Anjum and Khan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 197, Pages: 17, Words: 0
                Funded by: University Grants Commission (UGC) and Department of Biotechnology-BUILDER (DBT-BUILDER)
                Funded by: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)
                Award ID: SFRH/BPD/84671/2012
                Funded by: Aveiro University Research Institute/CESAM
                Award ID: UID/AMB/50017/2013
                Plant Science

                Plant science & Botany
                abiotic stress,crop-loss,phytohormones,salicylic acid,stress tolerance mechanisms


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