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      Proteocatella sphenisci gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, spore-forming anaerobe isolated from penguin guano.

      International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
      Amino Acids, metabolism, Anaerobiosis, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, pharmacology, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Base Composition, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Catalase, Chile, Cluster Analysis, Cold Temperature, DNA, Bacterial, chemistry, genetics, DNA, Ribosomal, Feces, microbiology, Fermentation, Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria, classification, isolation & purification, physiology, Locomotion, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sodium Chloride, Spheniscidae, Spores, Bacterial, cytology

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          A novel, obligately anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, designated strain PPP2T, was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Chilean Patagonia. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming, straight rods (0.7-0.8x3.0-5.0 microm) that were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed at pH 6.7-9.7 (optimum pH 8.3) and 2-37 degrees C (optimum 29 degrees C). Growth was observed between 0 and 4% (w/v) NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5% (w/v). Strain PPP2T was a catalase-negative chemo-organoheterotroph that was capable of fermentative metabolism. Peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, oxalate, starch, chitin and yeast extract were utilized as substrates. The major metabolic products were acetate, butyrate and ethanol. Strain PPP2T was resistant to ampicillin, but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. The DNA G+C content of strain PPP2T was 39.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain PPP2T was related most closely to Clostridium sticklandii SR (approximately 90% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics, strain PPP2T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Proteocatella sphenisci gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Proteocatella sphenisci is PPP2T (=ATCC BAA-755T=JCM 12175T=CIP 108034T).

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