This paper investigates a brain-based approach for visual merchandising display (VMD) in fashion stores. In marketing, VMD has become a research topic of interest. However, VMD research using brain activation information is rare. We examine the hemodynamic responses (HRs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while positive/negative displays of four stores (menswear, womenswear, underwear, and sportswear) are shown to 20 subjects. As features for classifying the HRs, the mean, variance, peak, skewness, kurtosis, t-value, and slope of the signals for a 20-sec time window for the activated channels are analyzed. Linear discriminant analysis is used for classifying two-class (positive and negative displays) and four-class (four fashion stores) models. PFC brain activation maps based on t-values depicting the data from the 16 channels are provided. In the two-class classification, the underwear store had the highest average classification result of 67.04%, whereas the menswear store had the lowest value of 64.15%. Men’s classification accuracy for the underwear stores with positive and negative displays was 71.38%, whereas the highest classification accuracy obtained by women for womenswear stores was 73%. The average accuracy over the 20 subjects for positive displays was 50.68%, while that of negative displays was 51.07%. Therefore, these findings suggest that human brain activation is involved in the evaluation of the fashion store displays. It is concluded that fNIRS can be used as a brain-based tool in the evaluation of fashion stores in a daily life environment.