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      Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography.

      1 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
      Genome research
      Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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          Abstract

          Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N(2)-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the "actinorhizal" symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%-98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Genome Res
          Genome research
          Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
          1088-9051
          1088-9051
          Jan 2007
          : 17
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Université de Lyon, UMR CNRS, 5557 Ecologie Microbienne, IFR41 Bio Environnement et Santé, Université Lyon I, Villeurbanne 69622 cedex, France. normand@biomserv.univ-lyon1.fr
          Article
          gr.5798407
          10.1101/gr.5798407
          1716269
          17151343
          228d2b6e-4e90-4c54-bfbc-de6f13ff3620
          History

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