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      Therapy Efficacy of Idiopathic Ventricular Extrasystoles: A Real Life Study


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          Ventricular extrasystoles (VESs) are common and often harmless in a healthy heart, but they can significantly affect the quality of life. If changes in lifestyle and antiarrhythmic medication are not enough, invasive and often curative catheter ablation can be considered. Better understanding of the conformation of VESs with a 12-lead ECG, as well as their precise localization, have increased their treatment with catheter ablation. Our goal was to determine whether the anatomical site of VES had an effect on procedure success. We also analyzed the safety of the procedure and patient-related factors affecting the results.

          Materials and Methods

          In this retrospective study, we analyzed the medical records of 63 consecutive patients with multiple idiopathic VESs treated by catheter ablation at Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital, during 2017 and 2018. Patients with structural heart disease were excluded. Ablation success was estimated with two endpoints, primary and follow-up success.


          The majority of the patients received treatment on the right ventricular outflow tract (66.7%), others on the left ventricle (17.5%), or the aortic cusp (9.5%). The site of origin remained unknown in four procedures (6.3% of patients). Primary success was observed in 48 procedures (76.2%). During the follow-up period of three months, the procedure was successful in 70.3% of the cases. The anatomical site of VES had no significant effect on either primary or follow-up success. Those with a successful follow-up result had a lower body mass index (BMI = 26.4) than those who had an unsuccessful result (BMI = 28.7; p=0.069); this did not reach statistical significance, potentially due to the small study population size. Complications were observed in three patients (4.5%). All of them were related to the catheter insertion site.


          For a symptomatic patient, catheter ablation is an effective and often fully curative treatment. The success rate was similar regardless of the site of VESs. This suggests that catheter ablation should also be assessed early on for other cases besides classic right ventricular outflow tract VESs. A high BMI was the only factor associated with a poor procedure success rate. The procedure itself is safe, and adverse effects are rare. The radiation dose is also low partly due to the current magnetic navigation method.

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          Most cited references28

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          Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: a catalog.

          Medical uses of radiation have grown very rapidly over the past decade, and, as of 2007, medical uses represent the largest source of exposure to the U.S. population. Most physicians have difficulty assessing the magnitude of exposure or potential risk. Effective dose provides an approximate indicator of potential detriment from ionizing radiation and should be used as one parameter in evaluating the appropriateness of examinations involving ionizing radiation. The purpose of this review is to provide a compilation of effective doses for radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures. Standard radiographic examinations have average effective doses that vary by over a factor of 1000 (0.01-10 mSv). Computed tomographic examinations tend to be in a more narrow range but have relatively high average effective doses (approximately 2-20 mSv), and average effective doses for interventional procedures usually range from 5-70 mSv. Average effective dose for most nuclear medicine procedures varies between 0.3 and 20 mSv. These doses can be compared with the average annual effective dose from background radiation of about 3 mSv. (c) RSNA, 2008.
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            Sudden cardiac arrest associated with early repolarization.

            Early repolarization is a common electrocardiographic finding that is generally considered to be benign. Its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias has been hypothesized from experimental studies, but it is not known whether there is a clinical association with sudden cardiac arrest. We reviewed data from 206 case subjects at 22 centers who were resuscitated after cardiac arrest due to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and assessed the prevalence of electrocardiographic early repolarization. The latter was defined as an elevation of the QRS-ST junction of at least 0.1 mV from baseline in the inferior or lateral lead, manifested as QRS slurring or notching. The control group comprised 412 subjects without heart disease who were matched for age, sex, race, and level of physical activity. Follow-up data that included the results of monitoring with an implantable defibrillator were obtained for all case subjects. Early repolarization was more frequent in case subjects with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation than in control subjects (31% vs. 5%, P<0.001). Among case subjects, those with early repolarization were more likely to be male and to have a history of syncope or sudden cardiac arrest during sleep than those without early repolarization. In eight subjects, the origin of ectopy that initiated ventricular arrhythmias was mapped to sites concordant with the localization of repolarization abnormalities. During a mean (+/-SD) follow-up of 61+/-50 months, defibrillator monitoring showed a higher incidence of recurrent ventricular fibrillation in case subjects with a repolarization abnormality than in those without such an abnormality (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 3.5; P=0.008). Among patients with a history of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, there is an increased prevalence of early repolarization. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Long QT syndrome.

              The hereditary long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic channelopathy with variable penetrance that is associated with increased propensity to syncope, polymorphous ventricular tachycardia (torsades de pointes), and sudden arrhythmic death. This inherited cardiac disorder constitutes an important cause of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in young individuals with normal cardiac morphology. Risk assessment in affected LQTS patients relies upon a constellation of electrocardiographic, clinical, and genetic factors. Administration of beta-blockers is the mainstay therapy in affected patients, and primary prevention with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator or left cervicothoracic sympathetic denervation are therapeutic options in patients who remain symptomatic despite beta-blocker therapy. Accumulating data from the International LQTS Registry have recently facilitated a comprehensive analysis of risk factors for aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death in pre-specified age groups, including the childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and post-40 periods. These analyses have consistently indicated that the phenotypic expression of LQTS is time dependent and age specific, warranting continuous risk assessment in affected patients. Furthermore, the biophysical function, type, and location of the ion-channel mutation are currently emerging as important determinants of outcome in genotyped patients. These new data may be used to improve risk stratification and for the development of gene-specific therapies that may reduce the risk of life-threatening cardiac events in patients with this inherited cardiac disorder.

                Author and article information

                J Interv Cardiol
                J Interv Cardiol
                Journal of Interventional Cardiology
                27 October 2023
                : 2023
                : 5590422
                1Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön Katu 34, 33540 Tampere, Finland
                2Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital, Ensitie 4, 33520 Tampere, Finland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yuichiro Maekawa

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Aliisa Lönnrot et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 22 June 2023
                : 15 September 2023
                : 9 October 2023
                Funded by: FinELib
                Research Article


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