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      Changes in Fos Expression in Various Brain Regions during Deoxycorticosterone Acetate Treatment: Relation to Salt Appetite, Vasopressin mRNA and the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

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          Abstract

          Salt appetite, a conditioning factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, is produced when high doses of mineralocorticoids are given to experimental animals. A commonly used procedure to identify neuronal activation is to determine the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells. In rats with established salt appetite after 8 days of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) treatment, Fos-positive cells were studied in seven brain areas. Significant increases in Fos activity were recorded in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), preoptic area (POA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and amygdala (AMYG). In most of these areas, increased Fos expression was also observed early (2 h) after a single DOCA injection, well before salt appetite develops. Using a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antibody, we studied whether Fos-active regions also expressed MR. MR-positive cells were found in the OVLT, MnPO, AMYG and BNST, but not in the POA, PVN and SON. In the PVN and SON, nevertheless, prolonged or single DOCA treatment increased expression of mRNA for arginine vasopressin (AVP). The present demonstration of Fos activation, in conjunction with differential expression of MR and stimulation of AVP mRNA, suggests that a neuroanatomical pathway comprising the AMYG, osmosensitive brain regions and magnocellular nuclei becomes activated during DOCA effects on salt appetite. It is recognized, however, that DOCA effects may also depend on mechanisms and brain structures other than those considered in the present investigation. Since some Fos-positive regions were devoid of MR, a comprehensive view of DOCA-induced salt appetite should consider nongenomic pathways of steroid action, including the role of reduced DOC metabolites binding to GABAergic membrane receptors.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Brain mineralocorticoid receptor diversity: functional implications.

          Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in neurons of the anterior hypothalamus and the periventricular brain regions mediate aldosterone-selective actions on sodium homeostasis, salt appetite and cardiovascular regulation. Corticosterone is not effective in these neurons, possibly because it is enzymatically inactivated. However, MRs in limbic brain regions, notably in the hippocampal neurons, do already respond to very low concentrations of both corticosterone and aldosterone. The MR-mediated effects stabilize neuronal transmission and appear critical for neuronal integrity of a sub-region of the hippocampus: the dentate gyrus. Higher concentrations of corticosterone induced by stress and the circadian rise progressively activate the lower affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), which in coordination with MR-mediated actions then facilitate adaptive processes required for recovery of homeostasis. It is postulated that this balanced MR- and GR-mediated action of corticosterone is of critical importance for regulation of the stress response and behavioural adaptation.
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            ACTH induced sodium appetite in the rat

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              Effect of mineralocorticoids on spontaneous sodium chloride appetite of adrenalectomized rats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2001
                December 2001
                17 December 2001
                : 74
                : 6
                : 396-406
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory of Neuroendocrine Biochemistry, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental and Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, bInstituto Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Fundación Barceló, BuenosAires, Argentina; cLaboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, NewYork, N.Y., dDepartment of Psychology and Pharmacology and the Cardiovascular Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
                Article
                54706 Neuroendocrinology 2001;74:396–406
                10.1159/000054706
                11752896
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 52, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Activation of Early Genes in Hypothalamic Neurons

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