Corinne Isnard Bagnis a , Sophie Tezenas Du Montcel b , Michele Fonfrede c , Marie Chantal Jaudon c , Vincent Thibault e , Guislaine Carcelain f , Marc Antoine Valantin d , Hassan Izzedine a , Aude Servais a , Christine Katlama d , Gilbert Deray a
22 June 2006
Background: HIV-infected patients may develop a variety of underreported metabolic abnormalities that may be classified into HIVAN, specific HIV abnormalities, coincidental renal disorders and anti-retroviral-treatment-induced side effects. Methods: Our descriptive cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence of electrolyte and acid base disorders in HIV patients in the HAART era in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All consecutive HIV-infected patients (n = 1,232) presenting at our Department of Infectious Disease over 3 months were included. Measurements: All available biochemical data obtained at admission or on the day of the visit were analyzed. We identified risk factors for electrolyte and acid base disorders with univariate regression analysis and multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Variables tested for significance included age, sex, absolute CD4 and CD8 counts, hepatitis B and C antibodies, and use and type of anti-retroviral medication. Results: Most frequent and clinically relevant abnormalities were hyperuricemia in 41.3%, hypophosphatemia in 17.2% and low bicarbonate level in 13.6% of HIV-tested patients. Plasma magnesium was out of the normal range in 38.9% and blood glucose in 25.3% of the tested patients. When CD4 count was below 200/mm<sup>3</sup>, 9.2% of tested patients experienced low serum calcium (vs. 0.5% if CD4 count >200/mm<sup>3</sup>, p < 0.002), 11.4% increased creatinine plasma level (vs. 2.3% if CD4 count >200/mm<sup>3</sup>, p < 0.0001) and 24.5% low serum bicarbonate (vs. 13.7% if CD4 count >200/mm<sup>3</sup>, p < 0.0001). Protease inhibitor treatment was a significant risk factor of hyperuricemia (p < 0.003). Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy was significantly associated with less hyperuricemia (OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38–0.96) and with hypophosphatemia (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.4). Conclusions: The profile of biochemical abnormalities in HIV-infected patients has changed, hyperuricemia and hypophosphatemia being the most prevalent. Causes are poorly understood. Interpretation of drug-induced side effects in the HIV patient is only meaningful if performed versus a control group of patients.