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      Molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of arketamine: beyond the NMDA receptor

      review-article
      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 ,
      Molecular Psychiatry
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Neuroscience, Depression

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          Abstract

          The discovery of robust antidepressant actions exerted by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ( R,S)-ketamine has been a crucial breakthrough in mood disorder research. ( R,S)-ketamine is a racemic mixture of equal amounts of ( R)-ketamine (arketamine) and ( S)-ketamine (esketamine). In 2019, an esketamine nasal spray from Johnson & Johnson was approved in the United States of America and Europe for treatment-resistant depression. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies show that arketamine has greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant-like effects than esketamine in rodents, despite the lower binding affinity of arketamine for the NMDAR. In clinical trials, non-ketamine NMDAR-related compounds did not exhibit ketamine-like robust antidepressant actions in patients with depression, despite these compounds showing antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Thus, the rodent data do not necessarily translate to humans due to the complexity of human psychiatric disorders. Collectively, the available studies indicate that it is unlikely that NMDAR plays a major role in the antidepressant action of ( R,S)-ketamine and its enantiomers, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant actions of ( R,S)-ketamine and its enantiomers remain unclear. In this paper, we review recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ( R,S)-ketamine and its potent enantiomer arketamine. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of the brain–gut–microbiota axis and brain–spleen axis in stress-related psychiatric disorders and in the antidepressant-like action of arketamine. Finally, we discuss the potential of arketamine as a treatment for cognitive impairment in psychiatric disorders, Parkinson’s disease, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and stroke.

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          Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

          Summary Background In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

            The importance of the gut-brain axis in maintaining homeostasis has long been appreciated. However, the past 15 yr have seen the emergence of the microbiota (the trillions of microorganisms within and on our bodies) as one of the key regulators of gut-brain function and has led to the appreciation of the importance of a distinct microbiota-gut-brain axis. This axis is gaining ever more traction in fields investigating the biological and physiological basis of psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, age-related, and neurodegenerative disorders. The microbiota and the brain communicate with each other via various routes including the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, the vagus nerve and the enteric nervous system, involving microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, branched chain amino acids, and peptidoglycans. Many factors can influence microbiota composition in early life, including infection, mode of birth delivery, use of antibiotic medications, the nature of nutritional provision, environmental stressors, and host genetics. At the other extreme of life, microbial diversity diminishes with aging. Stress, in particular, can significantly impact the microbiota-gut-brain axis at all stages of life. Much recent work has implicated the gut microbiota in many conditions including autism, anxiety, obesity, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Animal models have been paramount in linking the regulation of fundamental neural processes, such as neurogenesis and myelination, to microbiome activation of microglia. Moreover, translational human studies are ongoing and will greatly enhance the field. Future studies will focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-gut-brain axis and attempt to elucidate microbial-based intervention and therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.
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              The role of short-chain fatty acids in microbiota–gut–brain communication

              Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the main metabolites produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre in the gastrointestinal tract, are speculated to have a key role in microbiota-gut-brain crosstalk. However, the pathways through which SCFAs might influence psychological functioning, including affective and cognitive processes and their neural basis, have not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, research directly exploring the role of SCFAs as potential mediators of the effects of microbiota-targeted interventions on affective and cognitive functioning is sparse, especially in humans. This Review summarizes existing knowledge on the potential of SCFAs to directly or indirectly mediate microbiota-gut-brain interactions. The effects of SCFAs on cellular systems and their interaction with gut-brain signalling pathways including immune, endocrine, neural and humoral routes are described. The effects of microbiota-targeted interventions such as prebiotics, probiotics and diet on psychological functioning and the putative mediating role of SCFA signalling will also be discussed, as well as the relationship between SCFAs and psychobiological processes. Finally, future directions to facilitate direct investigation of the effect of SCFAs on psychological functioning are outlined.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hashimoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp
                Journal
                Mol Psychiatry
                Mol Psychiatry
                Molecular Psychiatry
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                1359-4184
                1476-5578
                7 May 2021
                7 May 2021
                2022
                : 27
                : 1
                : 559-573
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411500.1, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, , Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, ; Chiba, Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.410578.f, ISNI 0000 0001 1114 4286, Key Laboratory of Medical Electrophysiology of Ministry of Education and Medical Electrophysiological Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Collaborative Innovation Center for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease, , Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Southwest Medical University, ; Luzhou, Sichuan China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2682-3780
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8892-0439
                Article
                1121
                10.1038/s41380-021-01121-1
                8960399
                33963284
                22c44348-c72d-4e6f-97c7-3254d46c60ca
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 8 February 2021
                : 1 April 2021
                : 13 April 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100009619, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED);
                Award ID: JP20dm0107119
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: 31701009
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2022

                Molecular medicine
                neuroscience,depression
                Molecular medicine
                neuroscience, depression

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