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      Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Sari Northern Iran; a population based study

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          Abstract

          Aim:

          In this study prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori and its associated factors have been investigated in urban and rural areas of Sari.

          Background:

          Helicobacter pylori has an important role in gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It is the most common infection in human population worldwide. Hence, the epidemiology of this infection in all parts of the world is of utmost importance.

          Methods:

          We conducted a cross-sectional study on 497 individuals ranging 15-65 years of age in Sari city and its surrounding rural residents. The sampling method was a cluster random sampling multi staged in stratified population by urban and rural areas. Questionnaires for personal and socio-economic data were filled. Blood samples were drawn and kept for analysis (IgG antibody ELISA for Helicobacter pylori). The data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test and logistic regression were used.

          Results:

          The prevalence of helicobacter infection was 44.5% in the studied population. This prevalence was 41.3% and 47.8% in urban and rural areas, respectively. Just a significant association between the infection and the age of subjects was observed in multiple regression analysis (p=0.001). However, in univariate analysis the level of education was also significantly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.015). No other variable was associated with the infection.

          Conclusion:

          The prevalence of helicobacter infection has dropped significantly in the region in comparison with the previous studies during the last 15 years.

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          Most cited references22

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          Relationship of Helicobacter pylori to serum pepsinogens in an asymptomatic Japanese population.

          A seroepidemiologic study of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan was performed, and the relationship between serum pepsinogen I and II levels (markers of gastritis and gastric atrophy) and H. pylori infection was investigated. Four hundred and eighteen asymptomatic children and adults were studied. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody increased with age. For persons born after 1950, the frequency of H. pylori infection increased at approximately 1% per year; for those born before 1950 the prevalence was high (70%-80%) and relatively constant. Serum pepsinogen I and II levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected volunteers than in H. pylori-uninfected volunteers [51.6 +/- 3 vs. 42.9 +/- 2 ng/mL (P less than 0.05) for pepsinogen I; 16.0 +/- 1 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.8 ng/mL (P less than 0.001) for pepsinogen II]. The ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II was significantly lower in H. pylori-infected volunteers (3.5 +/- 0.2) than in uninfected volunteers (6.3 +/- 0.3; P less than 0.001). The apparent decrease in prevalence of H. pylori accompanying the Westernization of Japan may eventually be accompanied by a reduction in the frequency of atrophic gastritis, the precursor lesion of the epidemic form of gastric carcinoma, and ultimately result in a decrease in the incidence of gastric carcinoma in Japan.
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            Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in India. Comparison of developing and developed countries.

            Helicobacter pylori (previously Campylobacter pylori) is now accepted as the major cause of type B gastritis and thus what is known about the epidemiology of type B gastritis can reasonably be transferred to H. pylori. We used a specific ELISA for anti-H. pylori IgG to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a population of lower socioeconomic class from Hyderabad, India. The results from India were compared to studies from other parts of the world. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals ages 3 to 70 participated. The frequency of H. pylori infection increased with age (P less than 0.01) and was greater than 80% by age 20. H. pylori infection was present in 79% of the population studied; there was no gender-related difference in prevalence of H. pylori infection. IgG antibody against hepatitis A (HAV) was rapidly acquired in Hyderabad; in a subset of 58 children between the ages of 3 and 21 tested, the frequency of anti-HAV was 98.2%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age in both developed and developing countries. The high age-specific prevalence of H. pylori infection in developing countries is probably a reflection of the lower socioeconomic level of those areas.
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              Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in urban and rural Vietnam.

              Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, are common in Vietnam, but the prevalence of the infection is largely unknown. A validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for seroepidemiology with 971 samples from the general population, ages 0 to 88 years, with 546 samples from an urban population (Hanoi), and with 425 samples from a poor, rural province (Hatay). The overall seroprevalence of the infection was 746 per 1,000, with a prevalence of 788 per 1,000 in Hanoi and 692 per 1,000 in Hatay (P=0.0007). The risk for infection in the rural area of Hatay was 40% lower than in the urban population of Hanoi, with the odds ratio being 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.81). The study shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in Vietnam and especially high in a large urban area, such as the city of Hanoi.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench
                Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench
                GHFBB
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
                Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran )
                2008-2258
                2008-4234
                Winter 2019
                : 12
                : 1
                : 31-37
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Associate professor of gastroenterology, Gut and Liver Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [2 ] Medical Student, Ramsar International Campus, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [3 ] Pathologist, Technical assistant of Health Center No.5 Laboratory, Sari, Iran
                [4 ] Associate professor, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                Author notes
                Reprint or Correspondence: Reza Ali Mohammadpour, PhD. Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. E-mail: mohammadpour2002@yahoo.com, ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2353-5027
                Article
                GHFBB-12-1
                6441486
                30949317
                22cea10e-ec4d-41c1-9b18-249af984d815
                ©2019 RIGLD, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 11 September 2018
                : 21 December 2018
                Categories
                Original Article

                helicobacter pylori,prevalence study,epidemiology,iran
                helicobacter pylori, prevalence study, epidemiology, iran

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