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      Upregulation of neuropeptide Y in cardiac sympathetic nerves induces stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy


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          Substantial emotional or physical stress may lead to an imbalance in the brain, resulting in stress cardiomyopathy (SC) and transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning. Even though these conditions are severe, their precise underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Appropriate animal models are needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms. In this study, we established a new animal model of epilepsy-induced SC. The SC model showed an increased expression of the acute phase reaction protein, c-Fos, in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), which is the sympathetic nerve center of the brain. Furthermore, we observed a significant upregulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the left stellate ganglion (SG) and cardiac sympathetic nerves. NPY showed neither positive nor negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. On the contrary, NPY could interrupt β-adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes when exposure to NPY precedes exposure to noradrenaline. Moreover, its elimination in the left SG via siRNA treatment tended to reduce the incidence of SC. Thus, our results indicated that upstream sympathetic activation induced significant upregulation of NPY in the left SG and cardiac sympathetic nerves, resulting in cardiac dysfunctions like SC.

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          Most cited references37

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          Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention.

          Classifications of heart muscle diseases have proved to be exceedingly complex and in many respects contradictory. Indeed, the precise language used to describe these diseases is profoundly important. A new contemporary and rigorous classification of cardiomyopathies (with definitions) is proposed here. This reference document affords an important framework and measure of clarity to this heterogeneous group of diseases. Of particular note, the present classification scheme recognizes the rapid evolution of molecular genetics in cardiology, as well as the introduction of several recently described diseases, and is unique in that it incorporates ion channelopathies as a primary cardiomyopathy.
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            ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

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              Neurohumoral features of myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress.

              Reversible left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by emotional stress has been reported, but the mechanism remains unknown. We evaluated 19 patients who presented with left ventricular dysfunction after sudden emotional stress. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial echocardiography; five underwent endomyocardial biopsy. Plasma catecholamine levels in 13 patients with stress-related myocardial dysfunction were compared with those in 7 patients with Killip class III myocardial infarction. The median age of patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy was 63 years, and 95 percent were women. Clinical presentations included chest pain, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock. Diffuse T-wave inversion and a prolonged QT interval occurred in most patients. Seventeen patients had mildly elevated serum troponin I levels, but only 1 of 19 had angiographic evidence of clinically significant coronary disease. Severe left ventricular dysfunction was present on admission (median ejection fraction, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.15 to 0.30) and rapidly resolved in all patients (ejection fraction at two to four weeks, 0.60; interquartile range, 0.55 to 0.65; P<0.001). Endomyocardial biopsy showed mononuclear infiltrates and contraction-band necrosis. Plasma catecholamine levels at presentation were markedly higher among patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy than among those with Killip class III myocardial infarction (median epinephrine level, 1264 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 916 to 1374] vs. 376 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 275 to 476]; norepinephrine level, 2284 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 1709 to 2910] vs. 1100 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 914 to 1320]; and dopamine level, 111 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 106 to 146] vs. 61 pg per milliliter [interquartile range, 46 to 77]; P<0.005 for all comparisons). Emotional stress can precipitate severe, reversible left ventricular dysfunction in patients without coronary disease. Exaggerated sympathetic stimulation is probably central to the cause of this syndrome. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                03 November 2022
                : 16
                : 1013712
                [1] 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine , Tokyo, Japan
                [2] 2International Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Saitama Medical University , Saitama, Japan
                [3] 3Department of Internal Medicine, Kimura Clinic , Kanagawa, Japan
                [4] 4Department of General Internal Medicine, Hyogo College School of Medicine , Nishinomiya, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Vitor Engracia Valenti, São Paulo State University, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Takuto Hamaoka, Kanazawa University, Japan; Petr Masliukov, Yaroslavl State Medical University, Russia; Tianxin Ye, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China

                *Correspondence: Takahide Arai, tarai@ 123456a3.keio.jp

                This article was submitted to Autonomic Neuroscience, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2022 Arai, Kanazawa, Kimura, Munakata, Yamakawa, Shinmura, Yuasa, Sano and Fukuda.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 07 August 2022
                : 17 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 11, Words: 5919
                Brief Research Report

                neuropeptide y,cardiac sympathetic nervous,stellate ganglion,stress,takotsubo cardiomyopathy


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