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      What Our Eyes See Is Not Necessarily What Our Heart Feels

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      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 10

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          Practical value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for clinical quantification of aortic valve stenosis: comparison with echocardiography.

          Valvular pathology can be analyzed quickly and accurately through the use of Doppler ultrasound. For aortic stenosis, the continuity equation approach with Doppler velocity-time integral (VTI) data is by far the most commonly used clinical method of quantification. In view of the emerging popularity of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a routine clinical imaging tool, the purposes of this study were to define the reliability of velocity-encoded CMR as a routine method for quantifying stenotic aortic valve area, to compare this method with the accepted standard, and to evaluate its reproducibility. Patients (n=24) with aortic stenosis (ranging from 0.5 to 1.8 cm2) were imaged with CMR and echocardiography. Velocity-encoded CMR was used to obtain velocity information in the aorta and left ventricular outflow tract. From this flow data, pressure gradients were estimated by means of the modified Bernoulli equation, and VTIs were calculated to estimate aortic valve orifice dimensions by means of the continuity equation. The correlation coefficients between modalities for pressure gradients were r=0.83 for peak and r=0.87 for mean. The measurements of VTI correlated well, leading to an overall strong correlation between modalities for the estimation of valve dimension (r=0.83, by means of the identified best approach). For 5 patients, the CMR examination was repeated using the best approach. The repeat calculations of valve size correlated well (r=0.94). Velocity-encoded CMR can be used as a reliable, user-friendly tool to evaluate stenotic aortic valves. The measurements of pressure gradients, VTIs, and the valve dimension correlate well with the accepted standard of Doppler ultrasound.
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            Silent and apparent cerebral embolism after retrograde catheterisation of the aortic valve in valvular stenosis: a prospective, randomised study.

            In most patients, severity of valvular aortic stenosis can be accurately assessed non-invasively by echocardiography. However, retrograde catheterisation of the aortic valve is often undertaken. This procedure has a potential risk of neurological complications, with an unknown incidence of clinically silent embolism. We aimed to establish the frequency of clinically apparent and silent cerebral embolism after this procedure. We prospectively randomised 152 consecutive patients with valvular aortic stenosis at a German university hospital to receive either cardiac catheterisation with (n=101) or without (n=51) passage through the aortic valve. Patients underwent cranial MRI and neurological assessment within 48 h before and after the procedure to assess cerebral embolism. Controls were 32 patients without valvular aortic stenosis who underwent coronary angiography and laevocardiography. 22 of 101 patients (22%) who underwent retrograde catheterisation of the aortic valve had focal diffusion-imaging abnormalities in a pattern consistent with acute cerebral embolic events after the procedure; three of these patients (3%) had clinically apparent neurological deficits. By contrast, none of the patients without passage of the valve, or any of the controls, had evidence of cerebral embolism as assessed by MRI. Patients with valvular aortic stenosis who undergo retrograde catheterisation of the aortic valve have a substantial risk of clinically apparent cerebral embolism, and frequently have silent ischaemic brain lesions. Patients should be informed about these risks, and this procedure should be used only in patients with unclear echocardiographical findings when additional information is necessary for clinical management.
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              Estimation of aortic valve effective orifice area by Doppler echocardiography: effects of valve inflow shape and flow rate.

              The effective orifice area (EOA) is the standard parameter for the clinical assessment of aortic stenosis severity. It has been reported that EOA measured by Doppler echocardiography does not necessarily provide an accurate estimate of the cross-sectional area of the flow jet at the vena contracta, especially at low flow rates. The objective of this study was to test the validity of the Doppler-derived EOA. Triangular and circular orifice plates, funnels, and bioprosthetic valves were inserted into an in vitro aortic flow model and were studied under different physiologic flow rates corresponding to cardiac outputs varying from 1.5 to 7 L/min. For each experiment, the EOA was measured by Doppler and compared with the catheter-derived EOA and with the EOA derived from a theoretic formula. In bioprostheses, the geometric orifice area (GOA) was estimated from images acquired by high-speed video recording. There was no significant difference between the EOA derived from the 3 methods with the rigid orifices (Doppler vs catheter: y = 0.97x +0.18 mm(2), r(2) = 0.98; Doppler vs theory: y = 1.00x -3.60 mm(2), r(2) = 0.99). Doppler EOA was not significantly influenced by the flow rate in rigid orifices. As predicted by theory, the average contraction coefficient (EOA/GOA) was around 0.6 in the orifice plates and around 1.0 in the funnels. In the bioprosthetic valves, both EOA and GOA increased with increasing flow rate whereas contraction coefficient was almost constant with an average value of 0.99. There was also a very good concordance between EOA and GOA (y = 0.94x +0.05 mm(2), r(2) = 0.88). In rigid aortic stenosis, the Doppler EOA is much less flow dependent than generally assumed. Indeed, it depends mainly on the GOA and the inflow shape (flat vs funnel-shaped) of the stenosis. The flow dependence of Doppler EOA observed in clinical studies is likely a result of a variation of the valve GOA or of the valve inflow shape and not an inherent flow dependence of the EOA derived by the continuity equation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                January 2008
                21 August 2007
                : 109
                : 2
                : 122-125
                Affiliations
                Laval Hospital Research Center/Quebec Heart Institute, Laval University, Quebec, Que., Canada
                Article
                105553 Cardiology 2008;109:122–125
                10.1159/000105553
                17713327
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 17, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Editorial Comment

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

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