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      Recurrent Diabetic Macular Edema: What to Do

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          Abstract

          Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of blindness in the working population. Herein, we report the case of a patient with recurrent DME for about 6 years, uncontrolled by several medical and surgical treatments, that was successfully treated with a single sustained-release fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant in her right eye. The affected eye had presented a visual acuity of 2/10 and a central macular thickness of 488 µm prior to the injection. After treatment with the fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant, the patient's right eye presented an improvement in best corrected visual acuity to 6/10 and a reduction of central macular thickness to 198 µm. These functional and anatomical results were continuous and sustained during a follow-up period of more than 12 months, and with an acceptable and manageable safety profile. These results show that fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implantation is an effective treatment option in DME and should be considered in the DME treatment pathway.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 1. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study research group.

          (1985)
          Data from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) show that focal photocoagulation of "clinically significant" diabetic macular edema substantially reduces the risk of visual loss. Focal treatment also increases the chance of visual improvement, decreases the frequency of persistent macular edema, and causes only minor visual field losses. In this randomized clinical trial, which was supported by the National Eye Institute, 754 eyes that had macular edema and mild to moderate diabetic retinopathy were randomly assigned to focal argon laser photocoagulation, while 1,490 such eyes were randomly assigned to deferral of photocoagulation. The beneficial effects of treatment demonstrated in this trial suggest that all eyes with clinically significant diabetic macular edema should be considered for focal photocoagulation. Clinically significant macular edema is defined as retinal thickening that involves or threatens the center of the macula (even if visual acuity is not yet reduced) and is assessed by stereo contact lens biomicroscopy or stereo photography. Follow-up of all ETDRS patients continues without other modifications in the study protocol.
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            Global Prevalence and Major Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy

            OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20–79 years. RESULTS A total of 35 studies (1980–2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5–34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87–7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74–6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1–10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21 million with diabetic macular edema, and 28 million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.
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              A 2-year prospective randomized controlled trial of intravitreal bevacizumab or laser therapy (BOLT) in the management of diabetic macular edema: 24-month data: report 3.

              To report the 2-year outcomes of the BOLT study, a prospective randomized controlled trial evaluating intravitreous bevacizumab and modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) macular laser therapy (MLT) in patients with persistent clinically significant macular edema (CSME). In a 2-year, single-center, randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with center-involving CSME and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/320 were randomized to receive either bevacizumab or MLT. difference in ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between arms. mean change in BCVA, proportion gaining at least 15 and at least 10 ETDRS letters, losing fewer than 15 and at least 30 letters, change in central macular thickness, ETDRS retinopathy severity, and safety outcomes. At 2 years, mean (SD) ETDRS BCVA was 64.4 (13.3) (ETDRS equivalent Snellen fraction: 20/50) in the bevacizumab arm and 54.8 (12.6) (20/80) in the MLT arm (P=.005). The bevacizumab arm gained a median of 9 ETDRS letters vs 2.5 letters for MLT (P=.005), with a mean gain of 8.6 letters for bevacizumab vs amean loss of 0.5 letters for MLT. Forty-nine percent of patients gained 10 or more letters (P=.001) and 32% gained at least 15 letters (P=.004) for bevacizumab vs 7% and 4% for MLT. Percentage who lost fewer than 15 letters in the MLT arm was 86% vs 100% for bevacizumab (P=.03). Mean reduction in central macular thickness was 146 μm in the bevacizumab arm vs 118 μm in the MLT arm. The median number of treatments over 24 months was 13 for bevacizumab and 4 for MLT. This study provides evidence supporting longer-term use of intravitreous bevacizumab for persistent center-involving CSME. Improvements in BCVA and central macular thickness seen with bevacizumab at 1 year were maintained over the second year with a mean of 4 injections. eudract.ema.europa.eu Identifier: 2007-000847-89
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Case Rep Ophthalmol
                Case Rep Ophthalmol
                COP
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.ch )
                1663-2699
                Sep-Dec 2017
                27 September 2017
                27 September 2017
                : 8
                : 3
                : 465-474
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal
                Author notes
                *Rita Santos Gonçalves, Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Pedro Hispano, Rua Dr. Eduardo Torres, PT–4464-513 Senhora da Hora (Portugal), E-Mail rita.msgon@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                cop-0008-0465
                10.1159/000480119
                5662951
                29118706
                Copyright © 2017 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-4.0 International License (CC BY-NC) (http://www.karger.com/Services/OpenAccessLicense). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 18, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Case Report

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