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      Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment due to a macular hole in a patient with pars planitis: a case report

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          Abstract

          We report a rare case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment due to a full-thickness macular hole in a young patient with pars planitis. This study was an interventional case report. A 38-year-old Asian man presented with acute reduction of vision in his left eye. His past ocular history revealed a precedent of two intravitreal steroid injections in his left eye, and fundoscopy revealed a total bullous retinal detachment along with 360° snowbanking at the pars plana. Precise preoperative visualization of the posterior pole was impossible due to a dense nuclear cataract. During surgery, an unexpected full-thickness macular hole with no associated epiretinal membrane was observed, which resulted in the retinal detachment. This case of chronic pars planitis complicated with a full-thickness macular hole resulting in retinal detachment was successfully treated with vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and perfluoropropane tamponade. Visual acuity improved from hand movements to 6/36 Snellen at 12 months postsurgery. This case report illustrates the rare but possible association between pars planitis with macular hole formation and subsequent retinal detachment, underlying the beneficiary outcome of vitrectomy surgery both diagnostically and therapeutically.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Long-term visual outcome and complications associated with pars planitis.

          To identify the ocular complications and to statistically evaluate the possible association of pars planitis with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a homogeneous population of pars planitis patients. The authors reexamined 36 patients and reviewed the records of an additional 18 patients (total: 54 patients, 108 eyes) with idiopathic pars planitis. The initial mean visual acuity of 20/46 (logMAR: 0.36 +/- 0.50) was not statistically different from the final mean visual acuity of 20/44 (logMAR: 0.34 +/- 0.45; P = 0.73), after a mean follow-up of 89.2 months. Complications included neovascularization with or without associated vitreous hemorrhage (7 eyes, 6.5%), moderate to severe cellophane retinopathy (7 eyes, 6.5%), chronic cystoid macular edema (CME) (9 eyes, 8.3%), visually significant cataracts (16 eyes, 14.8%), and retinal detachment (9 eyes, 8.3%). Significant lens opacification was associated with a greater risk of retinal detachment (P = 0.004). In four patients (7.4%), optic neuritis developed, and in an additional eight patients (14.8%) MS developed. Kaplan-Meier analysis of these data showed a 16.2% +/- 6.2% risk of MS solely developing in patients, and a 20.4% +/- 6.7% risk of either MS or optic neuritis developing, after 5 years of disease. The presence of periphlebitis at the time of pars planitis diagnosis increased the rate of development of these conditions (P = 0.002). Six patients (11.1%) had a family history positive for MS in a first-degree relative. This study demonstrates the overall favorable visual prognosis in patients with pars planitis. Patients with significant cataract formation appear to be at greater risk for retinal detachment. Periphlebitis at the time of diagnosis of pars planitis increases the risk of development of optic neuritis or MS. The strong association demonstrated between pars planitis and MS in this study further supports a link between the two disease states.
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            Spontaneous closure of macular holes secondary to posterior uveitis: case series and a literature review

            The occurrence of a macular hole due to posterior uveitis is infrequently reported. We report the evolution of three cases of macular holes secondary to posterior segment inflammation. A complete inflammatory and infectious assessment found one case of toxocariasis, one of sarcoidosis, and one of syphilis. After medical etiological treatment, macular hole closure was rapidly obtained in all the cases and confirmed by spectral domain optic coherence tomography, with visual acuity improvement. Fibrous scarring developed in two cases, and foveal photoreceptor complex normalization was observed in the sarcoidosis case. These observations demonstrate that macular holes secondary to posterior uveitis frequently resolve without surgical intervention and so could be underdiagnosed if the patient is not evaluated at the time of onset before spontaneous hole closure.
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              Macular hole in Behçet's disease

              Objective: To investigate the clinical features, prevalence, role of surgical intervention and the visual prognosis of macular holes (MH) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients with BD and MH from January 1998 to November 2008. Results: Out of 159 patients, 21 eyes of 17 patients were identified with MH. The mean age was 38.59 (range 23-61) years and the mean follow-up period was 5.1 years (range 13-164 months). The prevalence of MH was 7%. Visual acuity (VA) at the time of presentation ranged from 20/70 to hand-motion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings revealed intraretinal cysts at the edge of the MH. The mean size of MH was 983.6 um; 52% had elevated edges, 43% had flat edges and only one eye (5%) was closed postoperatively. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was consistent with macular ischemia in 76% of the cases. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B51 association was found in 14 of the 15 patients investigated. Six patients (out of 17) underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The final VA on their last follow-up ranged from 20/70 to 2/200. Surgical intervention for MH did not result in any visual improvement as compared to non-operated eyes. One patient lost vision completely due to elevated intraocular pressure post vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade. Conclusions: MH in patients with BD may lead to significant visual disability. Surgical intervention does not seem to have any potential beneficial effect on the VA, probably due to significant macular ischemia and sequelae from the ocular inflammation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                30 December 2014
                : 11
                : 59-61
                Affiliations
                [1 ]2nd Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon University General Hospital, Athens, Greece
                [2 ]Ophthalmica Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [3 ]1st Department of Ophthalmology, G Genimatas General Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Panagiotis E Stavrakas, 2nd Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon University General Hospital, Rimini 1, Chaidari, Attiki, 12462, Greece, Email panos.stavrakas@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                tcrm-11-059
                10.2147/TCRM.S70711
                4284013
                © 2015 Stavrakas et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                vitrectomy, retinal detachment, pars planitis, macular hole

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