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      Advantages, Disadvantages, Indications, Contraindications and Surgical Technique of Laryngeal Airway Mask

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          Abstract

          The beauty of the laryngeal mask is that it forms an air tight seal enclosing the larynx rather than plugging the pharynx, and avoid airway obstruction in the oropharynx. The goal of its development was to create an intermediate form of airway management face mask and endotracheal tube. Indication for its use includes any procedure that would normally involve the use of a face mask. The laryngeal mask airway was designed as a new concept in airway management and has been gaining a firm position in anesthetic practice. Despite wide spread use the definitive role of the laryngeal mask airway is yet to be established. In some situations, such as after failed tracheal intubation or in oral surgery its use is controversial. There are several unresolved issues, for example the effect of the laryngeal mask on regurgitation and whether or not cricoids pressure prevents placement of mask. We review the techniques of insertion, details of misplacement, and complications associated with use of the laryngeal mask. We then attempt to clarify the role of laryngeal mask in air way management during anesthesia, discussing the advantages and disadvantages as well as indications and contraindications of its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

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          Most cited references 17

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          The intubating laryngeal mask. I: Development of a new device for intubation of the trachea.

          The standard laryngeal mask airway (LMA) functions both as a ventilatory device and as an aid to blind/fibrescopic-guided tracheal intubation. We describe the radiological and laboratory work used to bioengineer a new laryngeal mask prototype, the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA). The aim was to create a new airway system with better intubation characteristics than the LMA. Other design goals were to eliminate the need for head-neck manipulation and insertion of fingers in the mouth during placement. Development was aided by analysis of magnetic resonance images of the human pharynx and laboratory testing with a variety of tracheal tubes. The principal features of this new system are an anatomically curved, rigid airway tube with an integral guiding handle, an epiglottic elevating bar replacing the mask bars, a guiding ramp built into the floor of the mask aperture and a modified silicone tracheal tube developed for use with the device.
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            Anaesthesia for adenotonsillectomy: a comparison between tracheal intubation and the armoured laryngeal mask airway.

            A prototype armoured laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was compared with tracheal intubation (ETT) for anaesthesia for adenotonsillectomy. Fifty-five children were randomised into the LMA group and 54 into the ETT group. During insertion of the LMA, peripheral oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (SpO2) < 94% occurred in ten patients (18.2%) and in seven patients (13%) during tracheal intubation (NS). After opening the Boyle-Davis gag, airway obstruction occurred in ten patients (18.2%) in the LMA group and in three patients (6%) in the ETT group (P = 0.07). In five patients (9%) the LMA was abandoned in favour of tracheal intubation. In all others (91%), when the need for adequate depth of anaesthesia was realized, a satisfactory airway was achieved more rapidly than with tracheal intubation (P < 0.001), and maintained throughout surgery. Manually assisted ventilation was required in all patients in the ETT group, mean duration 373 +/- 385 sec, and in 26 patients (52%) in the LMA group, mean duration 134 +/- 110 sec, P < 0.001. Mean end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) was 45.5 +/- 6.21 mmHg in the ETT group and 46.6 +/- 6.09 in the LMA group (NS). The LMA did not limit surgical access. Heart rate, MAP and blood loss in the LMA group were 110 +/- 21, 74 +/- 9 mmHg and 1.92 +/- 1.22 ml.kg-1 respectively, compared with 143 +/- 13 (P < 0.001), 85 +/- 12 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 2.62 +/- 1.36 ml.kg-1 (P < 0.05) with tracheal intubation. Fibreoptic laryngoscopy at the end of surgery in 19 patients in the LMA group revealed no blood in the larynx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              The laryngeal mask airway: its features, effects and role.

              The laryngeal mask airway was designed as a new concept in airway management and has been gaining a firm position in anaesthetic practice. Numerous articles and letters about the device have been published in the last decade, but few large controlled trials have been performed. Despite widespread use, the definitive role of the laryngeal mask has yet to be established. In some situations, such as after failed tracheal intubation or in anaesthesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic or oral surgery, its use is controversial. There are a number of unresolved issues, for example the effect of the laryngeal mask on regurgitation and whether or not cricoid pressure prevents placement of the mask. We review the techniques of insertion, details of misplacement, and complications associated with the use of the laryngeal mask. We discuss the features and physiological effects of the device, including the changes in intra-cuff pressure during anaesthesia and effects on blood pressure, heart rate and intra-ocular pressure. We then attempt to clarify the role of the laryngeal mask in airway management during anaesthesia, based on the current knowledge, by discussing the advantages and disadvantages as well as the indications and contraindications of its use. Lastly we describe the use of the laryngeal mask in circumstances other than airway maintenance during anaesthesia: fibreoptic bronchoscopy, tracheal intubation through the mask and its use in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arch Craniofac Surg
                Arch Craniofac Surg
                ACFS
                Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
                The Korean Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
                2287-1152
                2287-5603
                December 2017
                23 December 2017
                : 18
                : 4
                : 223-229
                Affiliations
                Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anubhav Jannu. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India. anubhavjannu@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.7181/acfs.2017.18.4.223
                5759658
                Copyright © 2017 The Korean Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                laryngeal, airway mask, neck, intubation

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