The introduction of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with fewer adverse events, and it could shorten the treatment duration relative to the interferon era. Although most recent clinical studies have demonstrated that the occurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are decreased by SVR with both interferon-based and interferon-free-regimens, there are several reports about the unexpected observation of high rates of early tumor occurrence and recurrence in patients with HCV-related HCC undergoing interferon-free therapy despite SVR. Several mechanisms of HCC occurrence and rapid immunological changes, including cytokines and chemokines during and after DAA treatment, have also been reported. We focused on the possibilities that HCC occurs or recurs during and after DAA treatment, based on the reported clinical and basic studies. Further studies and observations will be needed to determine the short-term and long-term effects on hepatocarcinogenesis caused by the eradication of HCV with DAAs. New serum biomarkers and a follow-up system for HCV-patients with SVR should be established.