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Using Iron-Manganese Co-Oxide Filter Film to Remove Ammonium from Surface Water

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      An iron-manganese co-oxide filter film (MeO x) has been proven to be a good catalyst for the chemical catalytic oxidation of ammonium in groundwater. Compared with groundwater, surface water is generally used more widely and has characteristics that make ammonium removal more difficult. In this study, MeO x was used to remove ammonium from surface water. It indicated that the average ammonium removal efficiency of MeO x was greater than 90%, even though the water quality changed dramatically and the water temperature was reduced to about 6–8 °C. Then, through inactivating microorganisms, it showed that the removal capability of MeO x included both biological (accounted for about 41.05%) and chemical catalytic oxidation and chemical catalytic oxidation (accounted for about 58.95%). The investigation of the characterizations suggested that MeO x was formed by abiotic ways and the main elements on the surface of MeO x were distributed homogenously. The analysis of the catalytic oxidation process indicated that ammonia nitrogen may interact with MeO x as both ammonia molecules and ammonium ions and the active species of O 2 were possibly O and O 2 .

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      Most cited references 34

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          Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in groundwater treatment and drinking water distribution systems.

          The ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote (AOP) community in three groundwater treatment plants and connected distribution systems was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and sequence analysis targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Results demonstrated that AOB and AOA numbers increased during biological filtration of ammonia-rich anoxic groundwater, and AOP were responsible for ammonium removal during treatment. In one of the treatment trains at plant C, ammonia removal correlated significantly with AOA numbers but not with AOB numbers. Thus, AOA were responsible for ammonia removal in water treatment at one of the studied plants. Furthermore, an observed negative correlation between the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water and AOA numbers suggests that high DOC levels might reduce growth of AOA. AOP entered the distribution system in numbers ranging from 1.5 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(4) AOPs ml(-1). These numbers did not change during transport in the distribution system despite the absence of a disinfectant residual. Thus, inactive AOP biomass does not seem to be degraded by heterotrophic microorganisms in the distribution system. We conclude from our results that AOA can be commonly present in distribution systems and groundwater treatment, where they can be responsible for the removal of ammonia.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055, China; ruifengzhangtry@ (R.Z.); chenyongpansir@ (Y.C.); 15191856946@ (B.Z.)
            [2 ]Shanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055, China
            [3 ]Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710055, China; caoxin@
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: huangtinglin@ (T.H.); hitwengang@ (G.W.); Tel.: +86-29-8220-1038 (T.H.); +86-29-8220-7886 (G.W.)
            Role: Academic Editor
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            19 July 2017
            July 2017
            : 14
            : 7
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2017 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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