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      The role of empagliflozin in the management of type 2 diabetes by patient profile

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          Abstract

          Current recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) include patient-centered approach, ie, targeting glycemic control based on patient and disease characteristics. Ten different classes of oral and injectable anti-hyperglycemic agents have been developed for T2DM, including the newest class – sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Four members of the class with comparable glycemic efficacy and side effects have gained approval in the US and the rest of the world. This review covers empagliflozin – third approved SGLT2 inhibitor in the US. The drug has shown rapid absorption reaching peak levels in ~2 hours and an elimination half-life of ~13 hours. Empagliflozin is a highly selective SGLT2 inhibitor with 2600-fold higher affinity for SGLT2 compared with SGLT1. Oral administration results in a dose-dependent inhibition of the transporters with increased urinary glucose excretion and resultant reduction in plasma glucose. Its efficacy and safety have been shown in a number of studies conducted in many countries. Across the trials, significant improvements in primary and secondary efficacy end points have been demonstrated, including reductions in HbA 1c (~−0.8%), fasting plasma glucose (~−2 mmol/L), body weight (~−2 kg), and blood pressure (systolic −4 mmHg and diastolic −2 mmHg). Similar to other SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin does not increase the risk for hypoglycemia, and the most commonly reported side effects are urinary and genital tract infections. Although empagliflozin can be used as the first-line monotherapy, its current place in the treatment of T2DM appears to be as an add-on to other oral anti-hyperglycemic agent(s) or insulin at any stage of the disease.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Hypoglycemia in diabetes.

           P Cryer,  S Davis,  H Shamoon (2003)
          Iatrogenic hypoglycemia causes recurrent morbidity in most people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes, and it is sometimes fatal. The barrier of hypoglycemia generally precludes maintenance of euglycemia over a lifetime of diabetes and thus precludes full realization of euglycemia's long-term benefits. While the clinical presentation is often characteristic, particularly for the experienced individual with diabetes, the neurogenic and neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia are nonspecific and relatively insensitive; therefore, many episodes are not recognized. Hypoglycemia can result from exogenous or endogenous insulin excess alone. However, iatrogenic hypoglycemia is typically the result of the interplay of absolute or relative insulin excess and compromised glucose counterregulation in type 1 and advanced type 2 diabetes. Decrements in insulin, increments in glucagon, and, absent the latter, increments in epinephrine stand high in the hierarchy of redundant glucose counterregulatory factors that normally prevent or rapidly correct hypoglycemia. In insulin-deficient diabetes (exogenous) insulin levels do not decrease as glucose levels fall, and the combination of deficient glucagon and epinephrine responses causes defective glucose counterregulation. Reduced sympathoadrenal responses cause hypoglycemia unawareness. The concept of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes posits that recent antecedent hypoglycemia causes both defective glucose counterregulation and hypoglycemia unawareness. By shifting glycemic thresholds for the sympathoadrenal (including epinephrine) and the resulting neurogenic responses to lower plasma glucose concentrations, antecedent hypoglycemia leads to a vicious cycle of recurrent hypoglycemia and further impairment of glucose counterregulation. Thus, short-term avoidance of hypoglycemia reverses hypoglycemia unawareness in most affected patients. The clinical approach to minimizing hypoglycemia while improving glycemic control includes 1) addressing the issue, 2) applying the principles of aggressive glycemic therapy, including flexible and individualized drug regimens, and 3) considering the risk factors for iatrogenic hypoglycemia. The latter include factors that result in absolute or relative insulin excess: drug dose, timing, and type; patterns of food ingestion and exercise; interactions with alcohol and other drugs; and altered sensitivity to or clearance of insulin. They also include factors that are clinical surrogates of compromised glucose counterregulation: endogenous insulin deficiency; history of severe hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia unawareness, or both; and aggressive glycemic therapy per se, as evidenced by lower HbA(1c) levels, lower glycemic goals, or both. In a patient with hypoglycemia unawareness (which implies recurrent hypoglycemia) a 2- to 3-week period of scrupulous avoidance of hypoglycemia is advisable. Pending the prevention and cure of diabetes or the development of methods that provide glucose-regulated insulin replacement or secretion, we need to learn to replace insulin in a much more physiological fashion, to prevent, correct, or compensate for compromised glucose counterregulation, or both if we are to achieve near-euglycemia safely in most people with diabetes.
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            Empagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor: characterisation and comparison with other SGLT-2 inhibitors.

            Empagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study assessed pharmacological properties of empagliflozin in vitro and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo and compared its potency and selectivity with other SGLT-2 inhibitors. [(14)C]-alpha-methyl glucopyranoside (AMG) uptake experiments were performed with stable cell lines over-expressing human (h) SGLT-1, 2 and 4. Two new cell lines over-expressing hSGLT-5 and hSGLT-6 were established and [(14)C]-mannose and [(14)C]-myo-inositol uptake assays developed. Binding kinetics were analysed using a radioligand binding assay with [(3)H]-labelled empagliflozin and HEK293-hSGLT-2 cell membranes. Acute in vivo assessment of pharmacokinetics was performed with normoglycaemic beagle dogs and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Empagliflozin has an IC(50) of 3.1 nM for hSGLT-2. Its binding to SGLT-2 is competitive with glucose (half-life approximately 1 h). Compared with other SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has a high degree of selectivity over SGLT-1, 4, 5 and 6. Species differences in SGLT-1 selectivity were identified. Empagliflozin pharmacokinetics in ZDF rats were characterised by moderate total plasma clearance (CL) and bioavailability (BA), while in beagle dogs CL was low and BA was high. Empagliflozin is a potent and competitive SGLT-2 inhibitor with an excellent selectivity profile and the highest selectivity window of the tested SGLT-2 inhibitors over hSGLT-1. Empagliflozin represents an innovative therapeutic approach to treat diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Empagliflozin monotherapy with sitagliptin as an active comparator in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

              We aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of empagliflozin, an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, in patients with type 2 diabetes who had not received drug treatment in the preceding 12 weeks. In our multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥18 years) who had not received oral or injected anti-diabetes treatment in the previous 12 weeks. Eligible patients had HbA1c concentrations of 7-10%. We randomly allocated patients (1:1:1:1) with a computer-generated random sequence, stratified by region, HbA1c, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at screening, to placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or sitagliptin 100 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 by ANCOVA in all randomly allocated patients who were treated with at least one dose of study drug and had a baseline HbA1c value. This study is completed and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01177813. Between Aug 12, 2010, and March 19, 2012, we randomly allocated 228 patients to receive placebo, 224 to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, 224 to receive empagliflozin 25 mg, and 223 to receive sitagliptin. Compared with placebo, adjusted mean differences in change from baseline HbA1c at week 24 were -0·74% (95% CI -0·88 to -0·59; p<0·0001) for empagliflozin 10 mg, -0·85% (-0·99 to -0·71; p<0·0001) for empagliflozin 25 mg, and -0·73% (-0·88 to -0·59; p<0·0001) for sitagliptin. 140 (61%) patients in the placebo group reported adverse events (four [2%] severe and six [3%] serious), as did 123 (55%) patients in the empagliflozin 10 mg group (eight [4%] severe and eight [4%] serious), 135 (60%) patients in the empagliflozin 25 mg group (seven [3%] severe and five [2%] serious), and 119 (53%) patients in the sitagliptin group (five [2%] severe and six [3%] serious). Empagliflozin provides a tolerable and efficacious strategy to reduce HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes who had not previously received drug treatment. Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                05 May 2015
                : 11
                : 739-749
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Stephen N Davis, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street, Room N3W42, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA, Tel +1 410 328 2488, Fax +1 410 328 8688, Email sdavis@ 123456medicine.umaryland.edu
                Article
                tcrm-11-739
                10.2147/TCRM.S71762
                4427256
                25999725
                © 2015 Hedrington and Davis. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                anti-hyperglycemic agents, sglt2, glucose, diabetes

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