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      Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities

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          Navigating the multiple meanings of β diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist.

          A recent increase in studies of β diversity has yielded a confusing array of concepts, measures and methods. Here, we provide a roadmap of the most widely used and ecologically relevant approaches for analysis through a series of mission statements. We distinguish two types of β diversity: directional turnover along a gradient vs. non-directional variation. Different measures emphasize different properties of ecological data. Such properties include the degree of emphasis on presence/absence vs. relative abundance information and the inclusion vs. exclusion of joint absences. Judicious use of multiple measures in concert can uncover the underlying nature of patterns in β diversity for a given dataset. A case study of Indonesian coral assemblages shows the utility of a multi-faceted approach. We advocate careful consideration of relevant questions, matched by appropriate analyses. The rigorous application of null models will also help to reveal potential processes driving observed patterns in β diversity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
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            Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species.

            The abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is rarely (if ever) restricted by geographical barriers. This "ubiquitous" dispersal requires an alternative view of the scale and dynamics of biodiversity at the microbial level, wherein global species number is relatively low and local species richness is always sufficient to drive ecosystem functions.
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              The online database MaarjAM reveals global and ecosystemic distribution patterns in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

              • Here, we describe a new database, MaarjAM, that summarizes publicly available Glomeromycota DNA sequence data and associated metadata. The goal of the database is to facilitate the description of distribution and richness patterns in this group of fungi. • Small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences and available metadata were collated from all suitable taxonomic and ecological publications. These data have been made accessible in an open-access database (http://maarjam.botany.ut.ee). • Two hundred and eighty-two SSU rRNA gene virtual taxa (VT) were described based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all collated Glomeromycota sequences. Two-thirds of VT showed limited distribution ranges, occurring in single current or historic continents or climatic zones. Those VT that associated with a taxonomically wide range of host plants also tended to have a wide geographical distribution, and vice versa. No relationships were detected between VT richness and latitude, elevation or vascular plant richness. • The collated Glomeromycota molecular diversity data suggest limited distribution ranges in most Glomeromycota taxa and a positive relationship between the width of a taxon's geographical range and its host taxonomic range. Inconsistencies between molecular and traditional taxonomy of Glomeromycota, and shortage of data from major continents and ecosystems, are highlighted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                November 30 2016
                November 30 2016
                : 540
                : 7632
                : 266-269
                Article
                10.1038/nature20575
                27919075
                230b908f-86e8-45e3-a9f9-3828ace5647a
                © 2016
                History

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