The effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on adrenal androgen secretion was assessed in 7 patients (5 males, 2 females) with GH deficiency but normal ACTH-cortisol function. Patients ranged in age from 9 5/12 to 14 8/12 years (median 12 years). Plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) and free cortisol were determined before, during short-term (2 U/day × 3) and after long-term (6 months) treatment with hGH. No significant change was noted in the plasma concentration or urinary excretion of steroids during the short-term administration of hGH. Despite a significant increase in growth velocity during 6 months of hGH therapy (8.2 vs. 4.5 cm/year, p < 0.01), the plasma concentrations of DHEA-S and the urinary 17-KS and free cortisol levels were unchanged. These results fail to substantiate a role for hGH in the physiologic control of adrenal androgen secretion. Thus, the low plasma levels of adrenal androgens sometimes seen in GH-deficient patients are not due to the absence of GH per se.