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      Overview of artificial intelligence in medicine

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Artificial intelligence (AI) is the term used to describe the use of computers and technology to simulate intelligent behavior and critical thinking comparable to a human being. John McCarthy first described the term AI in 1956 as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.

          Objective:

          This descriptive article gives a broad overview of AI in medicine, dealing with the terms and concepts as well as the current and future applications of AI. It aims to develop knowledge and familiarity of AI among primary care physicians.

          Materials and Methods:

          PubMed and Google searches were performed using the key words ‘artificial intelligence’. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing the key articles.

          Results:

          Recent advances in AI technology and its current applications in the field of medicine have been discussed in detail.

          Conclusions:

          AI promises to change the practice of medicine in hitherto unknown ways, but many of its practical applications are still in their infancy and need to be explored and developed better. Medical professionals also need to understand and acclimatize themselves with these advances for better healthcare delivery to the masses.

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          Most cited references14

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          Artificial intelligence in medicine.

          Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.
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            Introduction to artificial intelligence in medicine.

            The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was coined by John McCarthy in 1956 during a conference held on this subject. However, the possibility of machines being able to simulate human behavior and actually think was raised earlier by Alan Turing who developed the Turing test in order to differentiate humans from machines. Since then, computational power has grown to the point of instant calculations and the ability evaluate new data, according to previously assessed data, in real time. Today, AI is integrated into our daily lives in many forms, such as personal assistants (Siri, Alexa, Google assistant etc.), automated mass transportation, aviation and computer gaming. More recently, AI has also begun to be incorporated into medicine to improve patient care by speeding up processes and achieving greater accuracy, opening the path to providing better healthcare overall. Radiological images, pathology slides, and patients' electronic medical records (EMR) are being evaluated by machine learning, aiding in the process of diagnosis and treatment of patients and augmenting physicians' capabilities. Herein we describe the current status of AI in medicine, the way it is used in the different disciplines and future trends.
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              Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce the Risk of Nonadherence in Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy.

              This study evaluated the use of an artificial intelligence platform on mobile devices in measuring and increasing medication adherence in stroke patients on anticoagulation therapy. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants, while reducing the need for monitoring, have also placed pressure on patients to self-manage. Suboptimal adherence goes undetected as routine laboratory tests are not reliable indicators of adherence, placing patients at increased risk of stroke and bleeding.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Family Med Prim Care
                J Family Med Prim Care
                JFMPC
                Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                2249-4863
                2278-7135
                July 2019
                : 8
                : 7
                : 2328-2331
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
                [2 ] Department of Paediatrics, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Amisha, HNO 440-A, Suraksha Colony, Saili Road, Pathankot, Punjab - 145 001, India. E-mail: amishagupta2012@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JFMPC-8-2328
                10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_440_19
                6691444
                31463251
                23112af9-4c4d-4085-bcc9-5c2d8c74100c
                Copyright: © 2019 Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                : 04 June 2019
                : 06 June 2019
                : 19 June 2019
                Categories
                Original Article

                artificial intelligence,future of medicine,machine learning,neural networks,robots

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