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      Phase III study of pasireotide long-acting release in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid symptoms refractory to available somatostatin analogues

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          In a randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, we compared pasireotide long-acting release (pasireotide LAR) with octreotide long-acting repeatable (octreotide LAR) in managing carcinoid symptoms refractory to first-generation somatostatin analogues. Adults with carcinoid tumors of the digestive tract were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive pasireotide LAR (60 mg) or octreotide LAR (40 mg) every 28 days. Primary outcome was symptom control based on frequency of bowel movements and flushing episodes. Objective tumor response was a secondary outcome. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated in a post hoc analysis. Adverse events were recorded. At the time of a planned interim analysis, the data monitoring committee recommended halting the study because of a low predictive probability of showing superiority of pasireotide over octreotide for symptom control (n=43 pasireotide LAR, 20.9%; n=45 octreotide LAR, 26.7%; odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–1.97; P=0.53). Tumor control rate at month 6 was 62.7% with pasireotide and 46.2% with octreotide (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.89–4.32; P=0.09). Median (95% CI) PFS was 11.8 months (11.0 – not reached) with pasireotide versus 6.8 months (5.6 – not reached) with octreotide (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.20–0.98; P=0.045). The most frequent drug-related adverse events (pasireotide vs octreotide) included hyperglycemia (28.3% vs 5.3%), fatigue (11.3% vs 3.5%), and nausea (9.4% vs 0%). We conclude that, among patients with carcinoid symptoms refractory to available somatostatin analogues, similar proportions of patients receiving pasireotide LAR or octreotide LAR achieved symptom control at month 6. Pasireotide LAR showed a trend toward higher tumor control rate at month 6, although it was statistically not significant, and was associated with a longer PFS than octreotide LAR.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Lanreotide in metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

          Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat symptoms associated with hormone hypersecretion in neuroendocrine tumors; however, data on their antitumor effects are limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide in patients with advanced, well-differentiated or moderately differentiated, nonfunctioning, somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors of grade 1 or 2 (a tumor proliferation index [on staining for the Ki-67 antigen] of <10%) and documented disease-progression status. The tumors originated in the pancreas, midgut, or hindgut or were of unknown origin. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an extended-release aqueous-gel formulation of lanreotide (Autogel [known in the United States as Depot], Ipsen) at a dose of 120 mg (101 patients) or placebo (103 patients) once every 28 days for 96 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival, defined as the time to disease progression (according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0) or death. Secondary end points included overall survival, quality of life (assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-GI.NET21), and safety. Most patients (96%) had no tumor progression in the 3 to 6 months before randomization, and 33% had hepatic tumor volumes greater than 25%. Lanreotide, as compared with placebo, was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival (median not reached vs. median of 18.0 months, P<0.001 by the stratified log-rank test; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.73). The estimated rates of progression-free survival at 24 months were 65.1% (95% CI, 54.0 to 74.1) in the lanreotide group and 33.0% (95% CI, 23.0 to 43.3) in the placebo group. The therapeutic effect in predefined subgroups was generally consistent with that in the overall population, with the exception of small subgroups in which confidence intervals were wide. There were no significant between-group differences in quality of life or overall survival. The most common treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (in 26% of the patients in the lanreotide group and 9% of those in the placebo group). Lanreotide was associated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival among patients with metastatic enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors of grade 1 or 2 (Ki-67 <10%). (Funded by Ipsen; CLARINET ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00353496; EudraCT 2005-004904-35.).
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            ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Liver and Other Distant Metastases from Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of Foregut, Midgut, Hindgut, and Unknown Primary

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              NANETS consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor.

               E Woltering,  ,  V L W Go (2010)

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                03 September 2015
                : 9
                : 5075-5086
                [1 ]Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
                [2 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France
                [5 ]Gastroenterology and Neuroendocrine Tumours, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
                [6 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
                [7 ]Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Hospital St Orsola, Bologna, Italy
                [8 ]Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
                [9 ]Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
                [10 ]Gastroenterology Unit, North Hampshire Hospital, Basingstoke, UK
                [11 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Raffles Hospital and Duke–NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
                [12 ]Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA
                [13 ]Surgery and Oncology Faculty of Medicine, Foothills Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada
                [14 ]Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, CHU de Nice Hôpital de l’Archet 1, Nice, France
                [15 ]Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Universitatssjukhuset, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
                [16 ]Department of Human Metabolism, School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, The University of Sheffield, and Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK
                [17 ]Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Edward M Wolin, Neuroendocrine and GI Oncology Program, Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Ben Roach Building, Room 450, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA, Tel +1 859 323 8043, Fax +1 859 257 7715, Email edward.wolin@ 123456uky.edu
                © 2015 Wolin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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