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      Differentiation Between Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Using Abdominal Computed Tomography in Patients With First-Time Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are classified as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, they have different pathogeneses and treatment strategies and need to be differentiated.

          Purpose

          To determine the feasibility of differentiating UC from CD in patients with first-time IBD based on simple abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings.

          Methods

          We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with IBD for the first time at our hospital between January and December 2021. Age, sex, white blood cell count, albumin concentration, C-reactive protein concentration, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and psoas major volume were extracted and used to differentiate the two groups.

          Results

          Forty-three patients were selected. Their mean age was 35.60 ± 17.19 years, and 32 were male, while 11 were female. The visceral fat cross-sectional area was 51.80 cm 2 for UC and 21.10 cm 2 for CD (p < 0.01). The subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area was 108.30 cm 2 for UC and 66.30 cm 2 for CD (p = 0.049). The total protein concentration was 6.15 g/L for UC and 6.60 g/L for CD (p = 0.012). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the visceral and subcutaneous fat cross-sectional areas showed areas under the curve, 95% confidence intervals, sensitivities, and specificities of 0.750 and 0.675, 0.603-0.897 and 0.507-0.844, 0.810 and 1.00, and 0.591 and 0.409, respectively, at cutoffs of 26.53 and 36.6 cm 2.

          Conclusions 

          The visceral and subcutaneous fat cross-sectional areas determined with simple abdominal CT can differentiate UC from CD in patients with first-time IBD.

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          Most cited references17

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          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

          Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website (http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/SaitamaHP.files/statmed.html) and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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            Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia: 2019 Consensus Update on Sarcopenia Diagnosis and Treatment

            Clinical and research interest in sarcopenia has burgeoned internationally, Asia included. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2014 consensus defined sarcopenia as "age-related loss of muscle mass, plus low muscle strength, and/or low physical performance" and specified cutoffs for each diagnostic component; research in Asia consequently flourished, prompting this update. AWGS 2019 retains the previous definition of sarcopenia but revises the diagnostic algorithm, protocols, and some criteria: low muscle strength is defined as handgrip strength <28 kg for men and <18 kg for women; criteria for low physical performance are 6-m walk <1.0 m/s, Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, or 5-time chair stand test ≥12 seconds. AWGS 2019 retains the original cutoffs for height-adjusted muscle mass: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, <7.0 kg/m2 in men and <5.4 kg/m2 in women; and bioimpedance, <7.0 kg/m2 in men and <5.7 kg/m2 in women. In addition, the AWGS 2019 update proposes separate algorithms for community vs hospital settings, which both begin by screening either calf circumference (<34 cm in men, <33 cm in women), SARC-F (≥4), or SARC-CalF (≥11), to facilitate earlier identification of people at risk for sarcopenia. Although skeletal muscle strength and mass are both still considered fundamental to a definitive clinical diagnosis, AWGS 2019 also introduces "possible sarcopenia," defined by either low muscle strength or low physical performance only, specifically for use in primary health care or community-based health promotion, to enable earlier lifestyle interventions. Although defining sarcopenia by body mass index-adjusted muscle mass instead of height-adjusted muscle mass may predict adverse outcomes better, more evidence is needed before changing current recommendations. Lifestyle interventions, especially exercise and nutritional supplementation, prevail as mainstays of treatment. Further research is needed to investigate potential long-term benefits of lifestyle interventions, nutritional supplements, or pharmacotherapy for sarcopenia in Asians.
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              Understanding and Preventing the Global Increase of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

              The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are contemporary conditions of industrialized societies. The prevalence of IBD continues to increase steadily in Western countries, and newly industrialized countries have a rapidly increasing incidence. The global spread of IBD appears to associate with Westernization of diets and environments, which affects the intestinal microbiome and increases the risk of IBD in genetically susceptible individuals. It is important to increase our understanding of these events to slow progression of IBD. We present a long-term plan to develop interventions that slow or stop the global increase in the incidence of IBD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                5 May 2024
                May 2024
                : 16
                : 5
                : e59691
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Radiological Technology, Japan Community Healthcare Organization (JCHO) Tokyo Yamate Medical Center, Tokyo, JPN
                [2 ] Department of Radiological Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, JPN
                [3 ] Department of Radiological Technology, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, JPN
                [4 ] Department of Radiology, Japan Community Healthcare Organization (JCHO) Tokyo Yamate Medical Center, Tokyo, JPN
                [5 ] Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, JPN
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.59691
                11151137
                38840987
                23200a8e-83c8-4131-9fff-43436cdcd7be
                Copyright © 2024, Yamamoto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 3 May 2024
                Categories
                Gastroenterology
                Radiology

                computed tomography,subcutaneous fat area,visceral fat area,ulcerative colitis,crohn’s disease

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