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      Dexmedetomidine prolongs the effect of bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

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          Abstract

          Background:

          We compared the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to a 30 ml solution of 0.325% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block along with the duration of analgesia were the primary endpoints.

          Materials and Methods:

          Fifty patients posted for upper limb surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the control group S and the study group SD. In group S ( n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; and in group SD ( n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml (100 μg) dexmedetomidine were given for supraclavicular brachial plexus block using the peripheral nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were assessed along with the duration of analgesia, sedation, and adverse effects, if any. Hemodynamic parameters, like heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) were also monitored.

          Results:

          Demographic data and surgical characteristics were comparable in both the groups. The onset times for sensory and motor blocks were significantly shorter in SD than S group ( P < 0.001), while the duration of blocks was significantly longer ( P < 0.001) in SD group. Except for the initial recordings (at 0, 5, 10, and 15 min), heart rate levels in group SD were significantly lower ( P < 0.001). SBP and DBP levels in SD group at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min were significantly lower than in S group ( P < 0.001). In fact, when the percentage changes in HR/SBP/DBP were compared from 0-5/0-10/0-15/0-30/0-45/0-60/0-90/0-120 min in SD with S group, they came out to be highly significant ( P < 0.001) in group SD. The duration of analgesia (DOA) was significantly longer in SD group than S group ( P < 0.001). Except that, bradycardia was observed in one patient in the group SD, no other adverse effects were observed in either of the groups.

          Conclusion:

          Dexmedetomidine added as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block significantly shortens the onset time and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blocks and duration of analgesia. Patients in group SD were adequately sedated (modified Ramsay Sedation Score, RSS = 2/6 or 3/6) with no adverse effects except bradycardia in one patient of group SD.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Controlled sedation with alphaxalone-alphadolone.

          Alphaxalone-alphadolone (Althesin), diluted and administered as a controlled infusion, was used as a sedative for 30 patients in an intensive therapy unit. This technique allowed rapid and accurate control of the level of sedation. It had three particularly useful applications: it provided "light sleep," allowed rapid variation in the level of sedation, and enabled repeated assessment of the central nervous system.Sedation was satisfactory for 86% of the total time, and no serious complications were attributed to the use of the drug. Furthermore, though alphaxalone-alphadolone was given for periods up to 20 days there was no evidence of tachyphylaxis or delay in recovery time.
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            Sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties of small-dose dexmedetomidine infusions.

            This research determined the safety and efficacy of two small-dose infusions of dexmedetomidine by evaluating sedation, analgesia, cognition, and cardiorespiratory function. Seven healthy young volunteers provided informed consent and participated on three occasions with random assignment to drug or placebo. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, ETCO(2), O(2) saturation, and processed electroencephalogram (bispectral analysis) were monitored. Baseline hemodynamic measurements were acquired, and psychometric tests were performed (visual analog scale for sedation; observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale; digit symbol substitution test; and memory). The pain from a 1-min cold pressor test was quantified with a visual analog scale. After a 10-min initial dose of saline or 6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine, volunteers received 50-min IV infusions of saline, or 0.2 or 0.6 microg. kg(-1). h(-1) dexmedetomidine. Measurements were repeated at the end of infusion and during recovery. The two dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in similar and significant sedation (30%-60%), impairment of memory (approximately 50%), and psychomotor performance (28%-41%). Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, ETCO(2), and respiratory rate were well preserved throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Pain to the cold pressor test was reduced by 30% during dexmedetomidine infusion. Small-dose dexmedetomidine provided sedation, analgesia, and memory and cognitive impairment. These properties might prove useful in a postoperative or intensive care unit setting. IMPLICATIPNS: The alpha(2) agonist, dexmedetomidine, has sedation and analgesic properties. This study quantified these effects, as well as cardiorespiratory, memory and psychomotor effects, in healthy volunteers. Dexmedetomidine infusions resulted in reversible sedation, mild analgesia, and memory impairment without cardiorespiratory compromise.
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              alpha-2 and imidazoline receptor agonists. Their pharmacology and therapeutic role.

              Clonidine has proved to be a clinically useful adjunct in clinical anaesthetic practice as well as in chronic pain therapy because it has both anaesthetic and analgesic-sparing activity. The more selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists, dexmedetomidine and mivazerol, may also have a role in providing haemodynamic stability in patients who are at risk of peri-operative ischaemia. The side-effects of hypotension and bradycardia have limited the routine use of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. Investigations into the molecular pharmacology of alpha-2 adrenoceptors have elucidated their role in the control of wakefulness, blood pressure and antinociception. We discuss the pharmacology of alpha-2 adrenoceptors and their therapeutic role in this review. The alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists are agonists at imidazoline receptors which are involved in central blood pressure control. Selective imidazoline agonists are now available for clinical use as antihypertensive agents and their pharmacology is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol
                J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol
                JOACP
                Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0970-9185
                2231-2730
                Jan-Mar 2014
                : 30
                : 1
                : 36-40
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital, New Delhi, India
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Medanta the Medicity Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Sandhya Agarwal, B3B/16A, Janak Puri, New Delhi - 110 058, India. E-mail: agarwal.ashoo@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JOACP-30-36
                10.4103/0970-9185.125701
                3927290
                24574591
                Copyright: © Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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