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      Endogenous Erythropoietin Levels and Anemia in Long-Term Renal Transplant Recipients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Although anemia is a common complication after renal transplantation (RT), data concerning endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) levels in long-term RT recipients are rare. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia within 6 months to 5 years after RT and to assess the relationship between the serum concentrations of endogenous EPO, graft function and grade of improvement of anemia. Methods: 140 patients who had undergone RT were included in the group: 89 males (63.6%) and 51 females (36.4%), with an average age 46.8 ± 12.8 years. The serum concentrations of EPO and creatinine (Cr) were tested in all the individuals and the values of the red blood component of blood count, serum ferritin (SF), plasma iron concentration, plasma total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TS), folic acid and vitamin B<sub>12</sub> levels in the serum were determined. A statistical analysis of the results was performed using the correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: Normal blood count values were found in 91 patients (65%), and a mild grade of anemia with a mean hemoglobin (Hb) 114.4 ± 11.9 g/l was observed in 45 patients (32.1%), and 4 patients (2.9%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for post-transplantation erythrocytosis. Individuals with normal Hb values had a mean EPO serum concentration of 39.3 ± 12.3 mU/ml (median 37.2) and the mean Cr was 133.8 ± 36.9 µmol/l (median 122). Patients with anemia (Hb <120 g/l in females, Hb <130 g/l in males) had a mean EPO value of 47.0 ± 26.6 mU/ml (median 36.0) and a mean Cr of 203.8 ± 108.9 µmol/l (median 181). The difference in the Cr values was statistically significant (p < 0.0001), while the difference between the EPO concentrations was not significant. No relation of EPO serum concentration with regard to graft function was found in the analysis. A lack of storage iron (SF <10 µg/l in females, SF <22 µg/l in males) was found in 16 patients (11.4%), and a lack of functional iron (TS <20%) was found in 27 patients (19.3%). Conclusions: Theprevalence of anemia in patients after transplantation was 32.1%. The most common cause of anemia is insufficient graft function development. The achieved values of the red component of blood count have no relation to the endogenous EPO serum concentrations.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Prevalence and management of anemia in renal transplant recipients: a European survey.

          The TRansplant European Survey on Anemia Management (TRESAM) documented the prevalence and management of anemia in kidney transplant recipients. Data from 72 transplant centers in 16 countries were screened, involving 4263 patients who had received transplants 6 months, 1, 3 or 5 years earlier. The mean age of transplant recipients was 45.5 years at transplantation. The most common etiology was chronic glomerulonephritis. The most common comorbidities were coronary artery disease, hepatitis B/C, and type 2 diabetes. The mean hemoglobin levels before transplantation were significantly higher in the more recently transplanted recipients. At enrollment, 38.6% of patients were found to be anemic. Of the 8.5% of patients who were considered severely anemic, only 17.8% were treated with epoetin. There was a strong association between hemoglobin and graft function; of the 904 patients with serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL, 60.1% were anemic, vs. 29.0% of those with serum creatinine
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            Late post-transplant anemia in adult renal transplant recipients. An under-recognized problem?

            Post-transplant anemia (PTA), a frequent complication during the first 3-6 months after transplant, is thought to be uncommon during the late post-transplant period. A study population of adults (> 18 years) transplanted during 1995 at Stanford University (n = 88) and University of North Carolina (n = 40) was selected. Data-collection points were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years post transplant. Anemia was defined as a hematocrit < 33 volume percentage. Thirty percent of patients were anemic at some time during the post-transplant period. The prevalence of PTA increased over time; by 5 years post transplant, 26% of the patients were anemic. Anemia occurred in 62.5% of patients converted from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil. A multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated a correlation between anemia and serum total CO2 (p = 0.002), BUN (p = 0.04), and creatinine (p = 0.045) at 1 year post transplant. At 5 years post transplant, only serum total CO2 (p = 0.0004) correlated with anemia. Thus, diminished renal excretory function and metabolic acidosis appear to be the most important correlates of late PTA. These findings should be interpreted in view of the fact that the newer immunosuppressive agents may have an even more profound effect on anemia and its recovery after transplantation.
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              The anemia of chronic renal failure: Pathophysiology and the effects of recombinant erythropoietin

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                April 2007
                19 March 2007
                : 30
                : 2
                : 108-116
                Affiliations
                3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
                Article
                100906 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:108–116
                10.1159/000100906
                17374961
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 27, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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