72
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Genetic compensation: A phenomenon in search of mechanisms

      review-article
      , *
      PLoS Genetics
      Public Library of Science

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Several recent studies in a number of model systems including zebrafish, Arabidopsis, and mouse have revealed phenotypic differences between knockouts (i.e., mutants) and knockdowns (e.g., antisense-treated animals). These differences have been attributed to a number of reasons including off-target effects of the antisense reagents. An alternative explanation was recently proposed based on a zebrafish study reporting that genetic compensation was observed in egfl7 mutant but not knockdown animals. Dosage compensation was first reported in Drosophila in 1932, and genetic compensation in response to a gene knockout was first reported in yeast in 1969. Since then, genetic compensation has been documented many times in a number of model organisms; however, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited. In this review, we revisit studies reporting genetic compensation in higher eukaryotes and outline possible molecular mechanisms, which may include both transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references123

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome.

          This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Nature, nurture, or chance: stochastic gene expression and its consequences.

            Gene expression is a fundamentally stochastic process, with randomness in transcription and translation leading to cell-to-cell variations in mRNA and protein levels. This variation appears in organisms ranging from microbes to metazoans, and its characteristics depend both on the biophysical parameters governing gene expression and on gene network structure. Stochastic gene expression has important consequences for cellular function, being beneficial in some contexts and harmful in others. These situations include the stress response, metabolism, development, the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and aging.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.).

              MARY LYON (1961)
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Genet
                PLoS Genet
                plos
                plosgen
                PLoS Genetics
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1553-7390
                1553-7404
                13 July 2017
                July 2017
                : 13
                : 7
                : e1006780
                Affiliations
                [001]Department of Developmental Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany
                Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PGENETICS-D-16-02527
                10.1371/journal.pgen.1006780
                5509088
                28704371
                2340b937-0d60-4fdb-9725-251cae7089e4
                © 2017 El-Brolosy, Stainier

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Funding
                Research at the Stainier lab is supported by the Max Planck Society, EU and DFG. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Review
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic acids
                RNA
                Messenger RNA
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Phenotypes
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Model Organisms
                Mouse Models
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
                Mouse Models
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Animal Models
                Mouse Models
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Gene expression
                DNA transcription
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Chromosome Biology
                Chromatin
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Epigenetics
                Chromatin
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Chromatin
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                RNA-binding proteins
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Gene Regulation

                Genetics
                Genetics

                Comments

                Comment on this article