The distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)- and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH)-like immunoreactivities in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of the rat was investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence technique. GAD-positive cell bodies were found in the arcuate nucleus, mainly clustered in its dorsomedial parts. A dense terminal plexus was observed in the lateral palisade zone of the median eminence. The apparent overlap of this distribution pattern with that for TH immunoreactivity was studied directly using an elution-restaining procedure. This revealed apparent coexistence of GAD- and TH-like immunoreactivities in a subpopulation of arcuate neurons. The relevance of this finding to the control of anterior pituitary secretion is discussed.