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      Knowledge on Dispensed Medications and Its Determinants Among Patients Attending Outpatient Pharmacy at Chencha Primary Level Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

      1 , 2 , 3

      Integrated Pharmacy Research & Practice

      Dove

      medicine, knowledge, hospital, Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          According to World Health Organization (WHO) drug use indicators manual, the patients’ knowledge on dispensed medication is a crucial patient care indicator. There is a dearth of studies about patients’ knowledge of dispensed medication at the primary health care facility. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of dispensed medication and associated factors among patients attending in the outpatient pharmacy of Chencha primary level hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A facility-based cross-sectional study was employed among 403 patients attending in the outpatient pharmacy of Chencha primary level hospital. The data collection techniques were observation of dispensing process and face-to-face interview by using WHO patient care indicators and a structured questionnaire, respectively. Descriptive statistics, univariable and multivariable logistic regression were determined using the SPSS version 20.

          Results

          A total of 403 patients participated which make the response rate 100%. Fifty-three (13.2%) patients had adequate knowledge on dispensed medication. The findings of multivariable logistic regression indicated that tertiary levels of education (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI [1.25, 11.96]), being private employee (AOR = 10.98; 95% CI [3.25, 37.04]), having severe perception of illness (AOR =3.77; 95% CI [1.43, 9.94]), having three or more visits (AOR =3.20; 95% CI [1.21, 8.44]) and being counseled by pharmacist (AOR = 10.02; 95% CI [4.45, 22.56]) significantly increased the odds of having a “adequate knowledge of medicines.”

          Conclusion

          This study showed inadequate level of knowledge of dispensed medicine among patients attending in outpatient pharmacy of Chencha primary level hospital. Patient education, employment status, number of visits, perception of illness, dispenser qualification and experience were the factors for knowledge of dispensed medicine. Dispensers need into account patients’ perception of their illness of illness and frequency of visits during counseling.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Hospitalization and death associated with potentially inappropriate medication prescriptions among elderly nursing home residents.

          This study examines the association of potentially inappropriate medication prescribing (PIRx) with hospitalization and death among elderly long-stay nursing home residents. We defined PIRx using the combined version of the Beers criteria. Data were from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Nursing Home Component. The study sample included 3372 residents, 65 years and older, who had nursing home stays of 3 consecutive months or longer in 1996. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses of longitudinal data using generalized estimating equations. Residents who received any PIRx had greater odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; P = .002) of being hospitalized in the following month than those receiving no PIRx. Residents with PIRx exposure for 2 consecutive months were at increased risk (OR, 1.27; P = .004) of hospitalization, as were those receiving PIRx in the second month only (OR, 1.80; P = .001), compared with those receiving no PIRx. Residents who received PIRx were at greater risk of death (OR, 1.28; P = .01) that month or the next. Residents with intermittent PIRx exposures were at greater odds of death (OR, 1.89; P<.001), compared with those with no PIRx exposure. The association of PIRx with subsequent adverse outcomes (hospitalization and death) provides new evidence of the importance of improving prescribing practices in the nursing home setting.
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            Inappropriate prescribing and related hospital admissions in frail older persons according to the STOPP and START criteria.

            Over the last few years, the Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) criteria have been increasingly used to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing. However, very few studies have evaluated the link between these criteria and clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing according to STOPP and START in a population of frail elderly persons admitted acutely to hospital; to evaluate whether these inappropriate prescribing events contributed to hospital admissions; and to identify determinants of hospital admissions potentially related to inappropriate prescribing. This was a cross-sectional study including all frail older patients admitted to a 975-bed teaching hospital over a 12-month period. A pharmacist and a geriatrician independently detected events of prescribing of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) and potential prescribing omission (PPO), using the STOPP and START criteria, respectively, in all patients included in the study. They determined whether the inappropriate prescribing event was the main cause or a contributory cause of hospital admission. Demographic, clinical and geriatric clinical syndromes (i.e. cognitive impairment, falls) were evaluated as potential determinants of hospital admissions related to inappropriate prescribing, using multivariate methods (i.e. logistic regression and a classification tree). 302 frail older persons (median age 84 years) were included in the study. PIMs (prevalence 48%) mainly involved overuse and/or misuse of benzodiazepines, aspirin and opiates. PPOs (prevalence 63%) were mainly related to underuse of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, aspirin and statins. Overall, inappropriate prescribing according to STOPP (54 PIMs) and/or START (38 PPOs) led or contributed to hospital admission in 82 persons (27%). The multivariate analyses indicated a relation between PIM-related admissions and a history of previous falls (p < 0.001), while the PPO-related admissions were associated with a history of osteoporotic fracture (p < 0.001) and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.004). Using the STOPP and START criteria, it was found that inappropriate prescribing events (both PIMs and PPOs) were frequent and were associated with a substantial number of acute hospital admissions in frail older persons. Fall-induced osteoporotic fracture was the most important cause of hospital admission related to inappropriate prescribing and should be a priority for pharmacological optimization approaches.
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              Association between potentially inappropriate medications from the Beers criteria and the risk of unplanned hospitalization in elderly patients.

              Predisposition to adverse drug events with advancing age has led to the development of lists of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) to be avoided in the elderly, such as the Beers Criteria. The prevalence of Beers medications has been studied widely, but it is still unclear whether PIM use is predictive of adverse events in older people.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Integr Pharm Res Pract
                Integr Pharm Res Pract
                iprp
                iprp
                Integrated Pharmacy Research & Practice
                Dove
                2230-5254
                05 October 2020
                2020
                : 9
                : 161-173
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pharmacy Department, Arbaminch College of Health Sciences , Arbaminch Town, Southern State, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Pharmacy Service, Federal Ministry of Health , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Pharmacy Service, Regional Health Bureau , Hawassa, Southern State, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Biruk Wogayehu Pharmacy Department, Arbaminch College of Health Sciences , Post: 155, Arbaminch Town, Southern State, EthiopiaTel +251986847024Fax +25146812126 Email biruk900zelalem@gmail.com
                Article
                274406
                10.2147/IPRP.S274406
                7547130
                © 2020 Wogayehu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 11, References: 28, Pages: 13
                Funding
                Funded by: No financial;
                No financial support was gained.
                Categories
                Original Research

                ethiopia, hospital, knowledge, medicine

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