Blog
About

4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Amphistome infections in domestic and wild ruminants in East and Southern Africa: A review

      1 , 2 , , 2

      The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research

      AOSIS

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In this article, the main amphistome species infecting domestic and wild ruminants in East and Southern Africa, their snail intermediate hosts and epidemiological features are reviewed and discussed. Twenty-six amphistome species belonging to nine genera from three families occur in domestic and wild ruminants in the region under review and over 70% of them belong to the genera Calicophoron, Carmyerius and Cotylophoron. Of the amphistome species, 76.9% are shared between domestic and wild ruminant hosts – an important observation when considering the different options for control. Seven freshwater snail species belonging to four genera from two families act as intermediate hosts of the identified amphistome species, with the genus Bulinus contributing 57% of the snail species. Some of the snails are intermediate hosts of amphistome species belonging to the same genus or to different genera; a phenomenon not yet fully elucidated as some snails are reported to be naturally infected with amphistome cercariae of unidentified species. Only nine (34.6%, 9/26) of the amphistome species have known snail intermediate hosts, while most (65.4%, 17/26) have unknown hosts. Species of intermediate hosts and the potential of the flukes to infect these hosts, the biological potential of the snail hosts, the definitive hosts management systems and their grazing habits are considered to be the main factors influencing the epidemiology of amphistomosis. Based on the epidemiological features of amphistome infections, various practical control options are discussed. Further research is necessary to determine amphistome–snail associations, develop diagnostic tests that can detect prepatent infections in the definitive host, determine the burden and economic importance of amphistomosis in domestic and wild ruminants and the efficacy of different anthelmintics in the treatment of patent infections.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 146

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi: changes in prevalences of natural infections in cattle and in Lymnaea truncatula from central France over the past 12 years.

          A retrospective study was carried out over a 10- to 12-year period to analyse the changes in prevalences of natural fasciolosis and paramphistomosis among cattle and snails in central France, and to determine the causes which had induced these changes. The prevalences of natural fasciolosis in cattle increased from 1990 to 1993 (13.6% to 25.2%) and diminished afterwards up to 1999 (at 12.6%). Those of natural paramphistomosis showed a progressive increase between 1990 and 1999 (from 5.2 to 44.7%). The prevalences of natural infections and the numbers of free rediae counted in the snails (Lymnaea truncatula) infected with F. hepatica did not show any significant variations over time. By contrast, the prevalences of natural paramphistomosis in snails significantly increased from 1989 to 1996 and remained afterwards in the same range of values (3.7-5.3%), while the number of free rediae significantly increased up to 2000 (from a mean of 6.5 to 13.8 rediae per infected snail, respectively). Three hypotheses may explain the increase of paramphistomosis in cattle and snails: a better quality of diagnosis for the detection of P. daubneyi eggs in veterinary analysis laboratories, the use of specific molecules in the treatment of cattle fasciolosis since 1993, and the lack of an effective treatment up to now against cattle paramphistomosis. Since the objective of most farmers in central France is to obtain the highest antiparasitic efficiency with a single treatment of cattle per year, it is reasonable to assume that the prevalence of bovine paramphistomosis will continue to increase in the future.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Paramphistomiasis of domestic ruminants.

             Yuri Horak (1970)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Loads of trematodes: discovering hidden diversity of paramphistomoids in Kenyan ruminants

              SUMMARY Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions. We also sequenced cox1 and ITS2 from 41 cercariae/rediae samples collected from four different genera of planorbid snails. Combining morphological observations, host use information, genetic distance values and phylogenetic methods, we delineated 16 distinct clades of paramphistomoids. For four of the 16 clades, sequences from adult worms and cercariae/rediae matched, providing an independent assessment for their life cycles. Much work is yet to be done to resolve fully the relationships among paramphistomoids, but some correspondence between sequence- and anatomically based classifications were noted. Paramphistomoids of domestic ruminants provide one of the most abundant sources of parasitic flatworm biomass, and because of the predilection of several species use Bulinus and Biomphalaria snail hosts, have interesting linkages with the biology of animal and human schistosomes to in Africa.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Onderstepoort J Vet Res
                Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res
                OJVR
                The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
                AOSIS
                0030-2465
                2219-0635
                18 October 2018
                2018
                : 85
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
                [2 ]School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Samson Mukaratirwa, mukaratirwa@ 123456ukzn.ac.za
                Article
                OJVR-85-1584
                10.4102/ojvr.v85i1.1584
                6244199
                30456960
                © 2018. The Authors

                Licensee: AOSIS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article