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      Renal Proximal Tubular Metabolism of Protein-Linked Pentosidine, an Advanced Glycation End Product

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          Background: Pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product, accumulates in plasma proteins of uremic patients. Its fate is, however, yet to be fully understood. Methods: Three cell lines, JTC-12 (proximal tubular cells), MDCK (distal tubular cells), and BALB3T3 (nonrenal cells), were cultured in a double chamber system and were exposed to uremic serum, and the contents of protein-linked pentosidine derived from uremic sera were determined in each medium by HPLC assay. The presence of pentosidine in the cytoplasm of these cells was assessed by immunoperoxidase staining. Results: When the apical cell membrane was exposed to uremic serum (fortified in the upper chamber), the contents of protein-linked pentosidine in the upper medium decreased by up to 30% after 24- and 48-hour incubations of JTC-12 cells but not of other cells. On the other hand, the contents of protein-linked pentosidine in the lower medium did not change. By contrast, exposure of the basolateral cell membrane of the three cell lines to uremic serum (fortified in the lower chamber) did not change the contents of protein-linked pentosidine both in the upper and lower medium after a 24-hour incubation. Pentosidine was detected immunohistochemically in the cytoplasm of JTC-12 cells, but not of BALB3T3 and MDCK cells, the apical membranes of which were exposed to uremic sera for 8 h. The immunoreaction disappeared 48 h after exposure. Pentosidine was not detected in the cytoplasm of JTC-12 cells, the basolateral membranes of which were exposed to uremic sera. The relevance of the in vitro results to humans was demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies in normal human kidney tissues showing that pentosidine was identified in the proximal renal tubules. Conclusion: These results suggest that the proximal tubular cells play a role in the disposal of plasma pentosidine.

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          Nε-(Carboxymethyl)Lysine Adducts of Proteins Are Ligands for Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products That Activate Cell Signaling Pathways and Modulate Gene Expression

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            Renal catabolism of advanced glycation end products: the fate of pentosidine.

            Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated through the Maillard reaction significantly alter protein characteristics. Their accumulation has been incriminated in tissue injury associated with aging, diabetes, and renal failure. However, little is known about their clearance from the body. The present study delineates the catabolic pathway of a well-defined AGE product, pentosidine. Synthesized pentosidine given intravenously in rats with normal renal function was rapidly eliminated from the circulation through glomerular filtration, but was undetectable in the urine by chemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry with anti-pentosidine antibody disclosed that pentosidine accumulated transiently in the proximal renal tubule one hour after its administration, but had disappeared from the kidney at 24 hours. After an intravenous load of radiolabeled pentosidine, radioactivity peaked in the kidney at one hour and subsequently decreased, whereas it rose progressively in the urine. Over 80% of the radioactivity was recovered in the 72-hour collected urine. However, only 20% of urine radioactivity was associated with intact pentosidine chemically or immunochemically. In gentamicin-treated rats with tubular dysfunction, up to 30% of the pentosidine load was recovered as intact pentosidine in the urine. The present study suggests that free pentosidine (and possibly other AGEs) is filtered by renal glomeruli, reabsorbed in the proximal tubule where it is degraded or modified, and eventually excreted in the urine. Kidney thus plays a key role in pentosidine disposal.
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              Identification of pentosidine as a native structure for advanced glycation end products in beta-2-microglobulin-containing amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis.

              beta-2-Microglobulin (beta-2m) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). Recently, we found that the pigmented and fluorescent adducts formed nonenzymatically between sugar and protein, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), were present in beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils, suggesting the possible involvement of AGE-modified beta-2m in bone and joint destruction in DRA. As an extension of our search for the native structure of AGEs in beta-2m of patients with DRA, the present study focused on pentosidine, a fluorescent cross-linked glycoxidation product. Determination by both HPLC assay and competitive ELISA demonstrated a significant amount of pentosidine in amyloid-fibril beta-2m from long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA, and the acidic isoform of beta-2m in the serum and urine of hemodialysis patients. A further immunohistochemical study revealed the positive immunostaining for pentosidine and immunoreactive AGEs and beta-2m in macrophage-infiltrated amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA. These findings implicate a potential link of glycoxidation products in long-lived beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils to the pathogenesis of DRA.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2002
                15 July 2002
                : 91
                : 4
                : 688-694
                aDivision of Nephrology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and bInstitute of Medical Sciences, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
                65032 Nephron 2002;91:688–694
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, References: 31, Pages: 7
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