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      Hyaluronic acid abrogates ethanol-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human fibroblasts

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          The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) in this process. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts we investigated: expression of β 1 integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis, metalloproteinase activity, as well as the influence of HA on these processes.

          Materials and methods

          Collagen biosynthesis, activity of prolidase, DNA biosynthesis, and cytotoxicity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that have been treated with 25, 50, and 100 mM ethanol and with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Western blot analysis and zymography were performed to evaluate expression of collagen type I, β 1 integrin receptor, IGF-IR, NF-κB protein, phospho-Akt protein, kinase MAPK, caspase 9 activity, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2).


          Ethanol in a dose-dependent manner lead to the impairment of collagen biosynthesis in fibroblast cultures through decreasing prolidase activity and expression of β 1 integrin and IGF-IR. This was accompanied by an increased cytotoxicity, apoptosis and lowered expression of the signaling pathway proteins induced by β 1 integrin and IGF-IR, that is, MAPK (ERK 1/2) kinases. The lowered amount of synthesized collagen and prolidase activity disturbance may also be due to the activation of NF-κB transcription factor, which inhibits collagen gene expression. It suggests that the decrease in fibroblast collagen production may be caused by the disturbance in its biosynthesis but not degradation. The application of HA has a protective effect on disturbances caused by the examined substances. It seems that regulatory mechanism of ethanol-induced collagen aberration take place at the level of collagen biosynthesis, since no effect of ethanol and HA was found on process of collagen degradation by MMP-2 and MMP-9.


          This study provides evidence that ethanol impairs collagen metabolism in human skin fibroblasts, leading to a significant decrease in the amount of produced protein. This mechanism probably is due to downregulation of prolidase activity, expression of β 1 integrin and IGF-IR receptors, and the signaling pathway proteins induced by these receptors.

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          Most cited references 26

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          The magic glue hyaluronan and its eraser hyaluronidase: a biological overview.

          Hyaluronan (HA) is a multifunctional high molecular weight polysaccharide found throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of soft connective tissues. HA is thought to participate in many biological processes, and its level is markedly elevated during embryogenesis, cell migration, wound healing, malignant transformation, and tissue turnover. The enzymes that degrade HA, hyaluronidases (HAases) are expressed both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes ranging from fertilization to aging. Hyaluronidase-mediated degradation of HA increases the permeability of connective tissues and decreases the viscosity of body fluids and is also involved in bacterial pathogenesis, the spread of toxins and venoms, acrosomal reaction/ovum fertilization, and cancer progression. Furthermore, these enzymes may promote direct contact between pathogens and the host cell surfaces. Depolymerization of HA also adversely affects the role of ECM and impairs its activity as a reservoir of growth factors, cytokines and various enzymes involved in signal transduction. Inhibition of HA degradation therefore may be crucial in reducing disease progression and spread of venom/toxins and bacterial pathogens. Hyaluronidase inhibitors are potent, ubiquitous regulating agents that are involved in maintaining the balance between the anabolism and catabolism of HA. Hyaluronidase inhibitors could also serve as contraceptives and anti-tumor agents and possibly have antibacterial and anti-venom/toxin activities. Additionally, these molecules can be used as pharmacological tools to study the physiological and pathophysiological role of HA and hyaluronidases.
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            Hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix.

            Hyaluronan is a multifunctional glycosaminoglycan that forms the structural basis of the pericellular matrix. Hyaluronan is extruded directly through the plasma membrane by one of three hyaluronan synthases and anchored to the cell surface by the synthase or cell surface receptors such as CD44 or RHAMM. Aggregating proteoglycans and other hyaluronan-binding proteins, contribute to the material and biological properties of the matrix and regulate cell and tissue function. The pericellular matrix plays multiple complex roles in cell adhesion/de-adhesion, and cell shape changes associated with proliferation and locomotion. Time-lapse studies show that pericellular matrix formation facilitates cell detachment and mitotic cell rounding. Hyaluronan crosslinking occurs through various proteins, such as tenascin, TSG-6, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, pentraxin and TSP-1. This creates higher order levels of structured hyaluronan that may regulate inflammation and other biological processes. Microvillous or filopodial membrane protrusions are created by active hyaluronan synthesis, and form the scaffold of hyaluronan coats in certain cells. The importance of the pericellular matrix in cellular mechanotransduction and the response to mechanical strain are also discussed.
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              Prolidase-dependent regulation of collagen biosynthesis.

              Prolidase [EC.] is a cytosolic imidodipeptidase, which specifically splits imidodipeptides with C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline. The enzyme plays an important role in the recycling of proline from imidodipeptides (mostly derived from degradation products of collagen) for resynthesis of collagen and other proline-containing proteins. The enzyme activity is up-regulated by beta(1)-integrin receptor stimulation. The increase in the enzyme activity is due to its phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. Collagen is not only structural component of extracellular matrix. It has been recognized as a ligand for integrin receptors, which play an important role in signaling that regulate ion transport, lipid metabolism, kinase activation and gene expression. Therefore, changes in the quantity, structure and distribution of collagens in tissues may affect cell signaling, metabolism and function. Several line of evidence suggests that prolidase activity may be a step-limiting factor in the regulation of collagen biosynthesis. It has been shown in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. It is of great importance during wound healing, inflammation, aging, tissue fibrosis and possibly skeletal abnormalities seen in Osteogenesis Imperfecta. The mechanism of prolidase-dependent regulation of collagen biosynthesis was found at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we provide evidence for prolidase-dependent transcriptional regulation of collagen biosynthesis. The mechanism was found at the level of NF-kB, known inhibitor of type I collagen gene expression. Modulation of integrin-dependent signaling by stimulatory (i.e. thrombin) or inhibitory (i.e. echistatin) beta(1)-integrin ligands or by nitric oxide donors (i.e. DETA/NO) affect prolidase at post-transcriptional level. All those factors may represent novel approach to pharmacotherapy of connective tissue disorders.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                24 November 2015
                : 9
                : 6225-6233
                [1 ]Department of Esthetic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
                [4 ]Medical Office, Białystok, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Magdalena Donejko, Department of Esthetic Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, 3 Akademicka Street, 15-267 Białystok, Poland, Email donejko@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2015 Donejko et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                collagen, ethanol, hyaluronic acid, fibroblast


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