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      Gas Sensing Properties of Perovskite Decorated Graphene at Room Temperature

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          Abstract

          This paper explores the gas sensing properties of graphene nanolayers decorated with lead halide perovskite (CH 3NH 3PbBr 3) nanocrystals to detect toxic gases such as ammonia (NH 3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). A chemical-sensitive semiconductor film based on graphene has been achieved, being decorated with CH 3NH 3PbBr 3 perovskite (MAPbBr 3) nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized, and characterized by several techniques, such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reversible responses were obtained towards NO 2 and NH 3 at room temperature, demonstrating an enhanced sensitivity when the graphene is decorated by MAPbBr 3 NCs. Furthermore, the effect of ambient moisture was extensively studied, showing that the use of perovskite NCs in gas sensors can become a promising alternative to other gas sensitive materials, due to the protective character of graphene, resulting from its high hydrophobicity. Besides, a gas sensing mechanism is proposed to understand the effects of MAPbBr 3 sensing properties.

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          Nanoscale metal oxide-based heterojunctions for gas sensing: A review

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            The rapid evolution of highly efficient perovskite solar cells

            The latest developments in the efficiency and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells are summarized. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted much attention because of their rapid rise to 22% efficiencies. Here, we review the rapid evolution of PSCs as they enter a new phase that could revolutionize the photovoltaic industry. In particular, we describe the properties that make perovskites so remarkable, and the current understanding of the PSC device physics, including the operation of state-of-the-art solar cells with efficiencies above 20%. The extraordinary progress of long-term stability is discussed and we provide an outlook on what the future of PSCs might soon bring the photovoltaic community. Some challenges remain in terms of reducing non-radiative recombination and increasing conductivity of the different device layers, and these will be discussed in depth in this review.
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              Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

              Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                20 October 2019
                October 2019
                : 19
                : 20
                : 4563
                Affiliations
                [1 ]MINOS-EMaS, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain; juan.casanova@ 123456urv.cat
                [2 ]Instituto de Tecnología Química, CSIC-UPV, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain; rogarab@ 123456itq.upv.es
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: pedatcor@ 123456itq.upv.es (P.A.); eduard.llobet@ 123456urv.cat (E.L.); Tel.: +34-963-877-805 (P.A.); +34-997-558-502 (E.L.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3508-3462
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0356-021X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6164-4342
                Article
                sensors-19-04563
                10.3390/s19204563
                6832145
                31635202
                2362001b-d37d-454d-8e41-d73f6eef45de
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 September 2019
                : 18 October 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering
                lead halide perovskite,graphene,gas sensing,no2 detection,nh3 detection,room temperature sensor

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