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      Scoping Recreational Disturbance of Shorebirds to Inform the Agenda for Research and Management in Tropical Asia

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          Abstract

          In addition to scoping the impacts of the four most reported sources of recreational disturbance on shorebirds, this study also advances the concept of Tropical Asia (TA) to collectively describe tourist destinations in the ecologically and geopolitically diverse part of the planet that incorporates the tourism megaregion of South and Southeast Asia. At a time of growing global concern about the rapid decline of shorebird populations, many governments in TA are embracing and capitalising on the exponential growth in demand for coastal recreation and tourism across the region. This political response is partly driven by efforts to deliver economic development, aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, in order to secure the livelihoods of people living in less developed coastal areas. However, the rapid increase in visitor numbers and the development of infrastructure to support the booming demand for coastal tourism destinations in TA are further exacerbating the pressures on shorebird populations across the region. Despite these growing pressures and the wealth of research reporting on shorebird populations across the Asian flyways, this scoping study identified surprisingly little research that reports on the recreational disturbance (RD) of shorebirds in TA. While undertaken to inform future research, this study also provides a synthesis of management strategies reported in the global literature into a set of management recommendations for coastal destinations in TA.

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          Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

          Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.
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            Fear in animals: a meta-analysis and review of risk assessment.

            The amount of risk animals perceive in a given circumstance (i.e. their degree of 'fear') is a difficult motivational state to study. While many studies have used flight initiation distance as a proxy for fearfulness and examined the factors influencing the decision to flee, there is no general understanding of the relative importance of these factors. By identifying factors with large effect sizes, we can determine whether anti-predator strategies reduce fear, and we gain a unique perspective on the coevolution of predator and anti-predator behaviour. Based on an extensive review and formal meta-analysis, we found that predator traits that were associated with greater risk (speed, size, directness of approach), increased prey distance to refuge and experience with predators consistently amplified the perception of risk (in terms of flight initiation distance). While fish tolerated closer approach when in larger schools, other taxa had greater flight initiation distances when in larger groups. The presence of armoured and cryptic morphologies decreased perception of risk, but body temperature in lizards had no robust effect on flight initiation distance. We find that selection generally acts on prey to be sensitive to predator behaviour, as well as on prey to modify their behaviour and morphology.
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              From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Trop Life Sci Res
                Trop Life Sci Res
                Tropical Life Sciences Research
                Tropical Life Sciences Research
                Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
                1985-3718
                2180-4249
                July 2020
                06 August 2020
                : 31
                : 2
                : 51-78
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
                [2 ]Harry Butler Institute Murdoch University: Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
                [3 ]Sukau Ecotourism Research Center (SERC), BEST Society, Lot 1, Pusat Perindustrian Kolombong Jaya, Jalan Kolombong, 88450 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
                [4 ]College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education: Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: G.Simpson@ 123456murdoch.edu.au
                Article
                tlsr-31-2-51
                10.21315/tlsr2020.31.2.4
                7470479
                © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2020.

                This work is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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